[INDOLOGY] -t/-d

Mark Allon mark.allon at sydney.edu.au
Thu Mar 4 02:33:01 UTC 2021

Dear list members,

There seems to be inconsistency in modern Sanskrit grammars as to whether the stems of pronouns and declined forms end in -d or -t.

MacDonnell’s Sanskrit Grammar for Students has the stems as mad, asmad, tvad, yuṣmad, ta(d), ya(d), listing the abl. forms of the personal pronouns as mad, tvad, asmad, yuṣmad. Of tad he gives the nom. acc. sg. n. as tad but lists the abl. sg. as tasmāt.

Kale’s Higher Sanskrit Grammar similarly gives the stems forms in -d, has tad for nom. acc. sg. n., but abl. tasmāt.

Devavāṇīpreveśika gives all stem and declined forms in -t.

Whitney’s Sanskrit Grammar does not seem to list the stems of the personal pronouns but gives the abl. singulars in -t as he does with the dem. sg. tasmāt, asmāt.

Presumably the -t forms are influenced by the rule concerning permitted finals (k, ṭ, t, p, ṅ, n, m and ḥ), but I take this to refer to sandhi in the context of sentence formation.

Can we say whether -d or -t forms are original?


Dr Mark Allon
Chair, Dept. of Indian Subcontinental Studies
The University of Sydney

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