Re:       Sanskrit syntax problem: Double bind constructions

Somadeva Vasudeva Somadevah at AOL.COM
Thu Mar 18 00:45:43 UTC 2004

Dear Hartmut Buescher,

You are quite right, using rhetorical terminology in prosaic examples is not 
called for (nor all that easy if it is genitives (=non-kaarakas) that are your 
samples). If your examples are poetry and contain a single expression that 
needs to be read repeatedly without changing its meaning, then quite commonly 
this is a diipaka (KP 10.103: sak.rdv.rttis tu dharmasya...):

for example: 

kiva.naa.nah pha.nama.nii ke"saraa~i ttha.naaa kutto chippanti

“The wealth of misers, the hood-jewels of serpents, the manes of lions, the 
breasts of [fem.] well-keepers, how can these be touched while not dead.“ 

Lit. “of them not dead”. The pass. verb and the gen. must be 
construed with all of these objects (the main one (prak.rta) being of course 

If it is not a diipaka then (perhaps second most frequent) it might be a 
tulyayogitaa, where no emphasis is placed on the prak.rta and aprak.rta status of 
the objects. In fact Da.n.din labels verses as containing diipaka which later 
rhetoricians would identify as tulyayogitaa. Da.n.din’s classification of 
diipakas is very simple (2.97: jaatikriyaagu.nadravyavaacinaikatra vartinaa
sarvavaakyopakaara"s cet tam aahur diipaka.m yathaa) the only criterion is 
what class of word   is read repeatedly. This seems to me so vague that it might 
even be possible to include the genitive double-bind examples, though I have 
no example to show this was ever done (anyway they hardly constitute poetry).  

As for the si.mhaavalokitanyaaya I have little to add except that I could 
send you some more references if this interests you. Just two points. 

1) In his article Prof. Aklujkar has suggested that these genitive 
double-bind constructions are “a kind of "“". However, in a " we need to 
have two distinct meanings when a word is read twice. This is not the case in 
the examples cited: sa eva hi kalau "saktivaikalyaan n.R.naa.m pravibhaktaa"ngo 
d.r"syate. Here n.R.naam means the same in both cases, if there is a nuance of 
difference it is far too slight to be considered even an artha", where 
only a minor shift in meaning is expected.   
2) As regards the appropriateness of using the dehaliidiipanyaaya rather than 
the si.mhaavalokitanyaaya it should be noted that this nyaaya is also used in 
a related but different way. This might prove confusing. For instance, in the 
Kaarikaavalii comms. it is used in an example to remove a doubt as to the 
meaning of the word yava by reading the remainder of the sentence. Should it mean 
diirgha"suuka-grains or ka"ngu-grains (whatever these are?): 

Kaarikaavalii "sabdakha.n.da 4 (81): yathaa yavamaya"s carur bhavatiity atra 
diirgha"suukavi" aaryaa.naa.m prayoga.h ka"ngau tu mlecchaanaam / tatra 
hi   ``athaanyaa o.sadhayo mlaayante .athaite modamaanaas ti.s.thanti /   
vasante sarvasasyaanaa.m jaayate patra"saatanam /   modamaanaa"s ca ti.s.thanti 
yavaa.h"saalina   iti’’ vaakya"se.saad diirgha"suuke "saktir 
nir.niiyate ka"ngau tu "saktibhramaat prayoga.h / 

Dinakarii ad loc (2.4): yavapadasyety asya dehaliidiipanyaayenaanvaya.h /   
tatra hi
taad.r"sadvividhavyavahaare, ka"ngau diirgha"suuke vaa yavapadasya "saktir 
iti sandehe sati yavapadasya iti vaakya"se.saad diirgha"suuke "saktir 
nir.niiyate ityanvaya.h /

Raamarudrii 1(7): yavapadasyety asyeti /   dehaliidiipeti /   dehaliistho 
diipo bhavanaantarbahisthavi"svavastuprakaa"sakatvena sa.mbadhnaati api puurvatana"saktigrahe uttaratra prayoge caanvetiityartha.h /

The Raamarudrii commentary, by the way gives a nice definition of the 
si.mhaavalokita- and ma.n.duukapluti-nyaayas.

Raamarudrii 1(8): si.mhaavalokitetyaadi /   si.mhas tu svag.rhaan nirgatya 
duura.m gatvaa puna.h paraav.rtya svag.rha.m pa"syati tadvad uttaratra cid puurvatanapadasyaanvayo naasti kvacid uttaravaakye 
puurvatanapadasyaanvaya.h saa si.mhaavalokanaa / ekatra 
puurvapadasyaanvaya.h ekatra naanvaya.h punar vaakyaantare ca tadanvayas tatra ma.n.duukapluti.h / sarvatra puurvapadaanvayo ga"ngaasrota iti 
vibhaagau bodhya.h /

best wishes,

Somdev Vasudeva

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