Re: [INDOLOGY] Formations of the ghanāghana type

Rolf Heinrich Koch rolfheiner.koch at
Sun May 12 13:15:30 UTC 2019

Dear colleagues

I am also struggeling with a similar expression which appears repeatedly 
in the description of buddhist hells:

yukti ayukti kara (by all available means?) daḍamuḍa (fines) gasā (abs. 
II to claim) =

[The royal officers,] who claim by all available means fines [will go to 
the hell].

Another description at the same monastery starts with the same wording:

yukti ayukti koṭa .....

sinhalese kara / koṭa = sk kṛtvā.

Any idea for translating  yukti ayukti kṛtvā in a different way?

Thank you


Am 12.05.2019 um 11:28 schrieb Martin Gansten via INDOLOGY:
> Thanks again to all who replied so far. The list of sources 
> contributed by Seishi Karashima is particularly impressive; I have 
> been able to consult some, but not all.
> Thus far, unless I am mistaken, it seems that three kinds of 
> reduplicated formations chiefly occur:
> 1. The ghanāghana type with lengthened ā (or, once, ū) and an 
> intensive meaning. The examples cited by traditional grammarians seem 
> all (?) to be directly derived from a verbal root (even, /pace /Renou 
> §147, vadāvada?). Renou §87, however, also cites priyāpriya from the 
> Buddhacarita and jihmājihma from Mhv (= Mahāvastu?). Does this 
> distinction of sources suggest the latter subtype to be secondary and 
> modelled on the former?
> 2. The nava-nava type without lengthened ā, formed from regular 
> adjectives and likewise intensive in meaning.
> 3. The menāmenam or kacākaci type with lengthened ā, used adverbially 
> and meaning 'from X to X' or 'X against X'.
> Some would include repetitions of inflected words, such as dyavi 
> dyavi, as a fourth kind.
> In the instances which prompted my query, krūrākrūraiḥ and 
> saumyāsaumyaiḥ (and, a little later in the same text, śubhāśubhaiḥ) 
> are all (substantivized) adjectives. If the same is true of the 
> priyāpriya and jihmājihma cited by Renou, these would seem to be 
> parallel cases. How, in the absence of a living accent system, such 
> intensive formations are to be distinguished from the far more common 
> dvandva compounds of the priya-apriya type is an open question. Only 
> by context, I suppose.
> कृतज्ञतया,
> Martin
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