[INDOLOGY] krauYcapadA

Roland Steiner steiner at staff.uni-marburg.de
Mon Sep 28 06:15:14 UTC 2015

> Regarding Dieter's second question, there are the "Nebencaesuren" of  
> āryā-type meters, which are not (to my knowledge) described as yati  
> by the tradition: in certain positions (the sixth gaṇa of the first  
> line, and the
> fourth gaṇa of any vipulā line, as H. Jacobi discovered), there must  
> be a "syncopated" rhythm, which is achieved either with the shape  
> v–v or with v|vvvv, the word-boundary being necessary in the second  
> case to prevent the four light syllables from being scanned as two  
> bimoraic feet.

That is an important hint, but there is at least one exception. In his  
metrical treatise Chandoratnākara, the Buddhist author Ratnākaraśānti  
(fl. between 975 and 1050) describes yati-s in certain well-defined  
cases related to the Āryā group of metres:

pūrvārdhe ṣaṣṭho jaḥ kho vā khe tv ādyalaghuni bhavati yatiḥ /
ṣaṣṭhaḥ khaparo 'ntayatis tūryo 'py atha bhavati caramadale //  
(Chandoratnākara 5.4)

"In the first half [of an Āryā stanza] the sixth [foot is] either ja  
(v – v) or kha (v v v v); in the case of kha, however, a caesura  
occurs after the first short [syllable]. A caesura [occurs] at the end  
of the sixth [foot] when the following (i.e. the seventh) [foot is]  
kha. Then in the second half [in addition to the sixth foot, the same  
applies] to the fourth [foot] as well (i.e. when the fifth foot is  
kha, a caesura occurs at the end of the fourth foot)." (ed. and  
transl. by Dimitrov p. 125, see below).

In his article "Ratnākaraśānti's Chandoratnākara and Tathāgatadāsa's  
Chandomāṇikya" (in: Indica et Tibetica. Festschrift für Michael Hahn.  
Ed. by Konrad Klaus and Jens-Uwe Hartmann. Wien 2007 [Wiener Studien  
zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde. 66], pp. 113-138) Dragomir  
Dimitrov points to the fact that Nārāyaṇa Bhaṭṭa quotes this stanza in  
his commentary on Kedārabhaṭṭa's Vṛttaratnākara (Ṭīkā ad VR 2.2). In  
addition to this, there is an unpublished Buddhist metrical treatise,  
entitled Chandomāṇikya by a certain Tathāgatadāsa, who according to  
Dimitrov (p. 124), lived "before 1205 AD [...] and cannot be dated  
later than Vidyākara (11th or 12th cent.)". The relevant passage in  
which the distribution of yati-s in the Āryā metre is treated is  
partly similar to Ratnākaraśānti's (for details and further references  
see the above-mentioned article by Dimitrov, esp. pp. 125-127).

Best wishes,
Roland Steiner

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