[INDOLOGY] Tukaram and the name Tuka
suresh.kolichala at gmail.com
Sun Apr 5 16:38:09 UTC 2015
Skt. *durgā *> t*ukka > tuka *is an interesting suggestion, Palaniappan.
Regarding the vowel metaphony ( *u *> *o*/_*a*), Bright (1966) finds
evidence for such non-contiguous vocalic assimilation in non-Dravidian
languages of South Asia including Indo-Aryan languages such as Konkani,
Bengali, Assamese and Sinhala. There are some Prakrit examples too: *nidr**ā
*'sleep' > *ṇeddā. *
But the dissimilatory process of reversal of metaphony ( *o* > *u*/_*a*) is
only found in Tamil-Malayalam, which I believe was developed as a
hyper-correction in the literary dialects of Tamil-Malayalam. I don't
believe Ashok Aklujkar was thinking about this vowel dissimilation when he
proposed Skt. *stoka *> *toka *> *tuka*.
On Sat, Apr 4, 2015 at 6:37 PM, Sudalaimuthu Palaniappan via INDOLOGY <
indology at list.indology.info> wrote:
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> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
> From: Sudalaimuthu Palaniappan <Palaniappa at aol.com>
> To: "ashok.aklujkar ashok.aklujkar" <ashok.aklujkar at gmail.com>
> Cc: Martin Gansten <martin.gansten at pbhome.se>, Indology <
> indology at list.indology.info>
> Date: Sat, 4 Apr 2015 17:37:24 -0500
> Subject: Re: [INDOLOGY] Tukaram and the name Tuka
> I am intrigued by the suggested change in the radical vowel toka > tuka in
> Marathi, because that is a well-known phenomenon in South Dravidian. Is
> this type of change seen in many words in Marathi? Also, how about the
> radical vowel -e- changing to -i-?
> > On Apr 4, 2015, at 12:52 PM, Ashok Aklujkar <ashok.aklujkar at gmail.com>
> > I think Marathi tukå/tukaa is related to Skt (stoka -->) toka, meaning
> 'little one, child'. The final vowel has been lengthened in Tukaa-raama as
> in several other Marathi names aatmaaraama (<-- aatma(n) + raama),
> dattaaraama (<-- datta + raama), raajaaraama (<-- raaja(n) + raama),
> ;saantaaraama (<-- ;saanta + raama), perhaps also sakhaaraama (<-- sakha
> <-- sakhi(n) + raama), baataarama (<-- baat(a) + raama), thaapaaraama (<--
> thaap(a) + raama) and ma:ngaaraama/ma:nghaaraama.
> > Semantically, the formation of Tukaa-raama, meaning
> 'Little/young/younger Raama", would be similar to that in: Hindi
> "Cho.taalaala/Cho.telaala", English "Little Johny”, etc.
> > I think it is more likely that the name of the sant(a)/saint has made
> the name Tukaa-raama popular, not the name of the deity Tukaa.ii.
> > a.a.
> >> On Apr 4, 2015, at 6:43 AM, Martin Gansten <martin.gansten at PBHOME.SE>
> >> ... two more questions: first, whether Tukā was a common name before
> the time of Tukārām, or whether people bearing the name today are largely
> named after him. (Or perhaps after the goddess -- is it a name used by both
> sexes?) And second, whether any Dravidian scholar on the list can confirm
> or deny the development śukra > tukka (in one or more Dravidian languages
> -- I'm not sure the same sound laws apply everywhere).
> >> 'My' author is typically called Tuka, with a single k and short a. In
> one place, however, I did notice the Devanāgarī spelling Tuvaka, where I
> suspect the -vaka may be a misreading for -kka (which in some forms of the
> ligature would look very similar).
> >> Madhav Deshpande wrote:
> >>> Tukā/Tukārām is still a common personal name in Marathi. While the
> origin of the name Tukā is not quite clear, there is a popular goddess in
> Maharashtra named Tuḷjā Bhavānī, also known as Tukāi (Tukā + āi), where
> "āi" is the Marathi word for mother, and the first part "Tukā" in her name
> is explained traditionally as being made up of "tu" (you) + "kā" (why), and
> there is a story saying someone asked this goddess "why did you come, O
> Mother", which gave her the name Tukāi. Another explanation I have heard is
> that "tukka" is the Dravidian form of Sanskrit śukra, and since Friday
> (śukravāra) is auspicious for this goddess, she came to be known as Tukkāi.
> While this may not be a true historical explanation of the name Tukāi, the
> name of this goddess may have made the name Tukā popular in Maharashtra.
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