[INDOLOGY] Hathayogapradipika 1.38

Dominik Wujastyk wujastyk at gmail.com
Thu Nov 20 15:02:43 UTC 2014

Hi, Ken,

As I'm sure you know, in the classic Pātañjalayogaśāstra of Patañjali,
sūtra 2.30 lists five yamas, beginning with ahiṃsā.  I don't know the
Haṭhayogapradīpikā well, but Svātmārāma (or whoever) gives 10 yamas in the
addendum to 1.16 (or 1.17 in my 1972 Adyar Library ed.). So even if ahiṃsā
is a yama there, as in PYŚ, there's already a willingness to depart from
the classic list of yamas, doubling its size.   Another item has crossed
list in 1.17; thus śauca is a niyama in the PYŚ but has become a yama in
the HYP.  I'd guess that the yama/niyama (commitment/obligation)
distinction wasn't that well-defined by Svātmārāma's time.

As an aside, Buddhaghosa works with five Niyamas (or niyāmas).

In the Milindapañha, niyamas are mostly paired with saṃyamas (not yamas).
The lists overlap with Patañjali. I haven't looked at this closely.


On 20 November 2014 08:01, Kenneth Gregory Zysk <zysk at hum.ku.dk> wrote:

> This comes as a request from a student. Any help would be most appreciated:
> My question concerns  the *Haṭhyogapradīpikā* 1.38 which states:
> The Siddhas know that as among *yama*s a moderate diet is the most
> important, and among *niyama*s, harmlessness (*ahiṁsā*), so among all the
> *āsana*s is the *siddhāsana*.
> In 1.16 – of what is presumably an appended part – we are taught that *ahiṁsā
> *pertains to the *yama*s; so why this obvious inconsistency? Is there any
> scriptural precedence to this case, where *ahiṁsā *can be found within
> the *niyama*s?
> Kenneth Zysk, PhD, DPhil
> Head of Indology
> Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies
> University of Copenhagen
> Karen Blixens Vej 4, Bygn. 10,
> DK-2300 Copenhagen S    Denmark
> Ph:  +45 3532 8951                      Email: *zysk at hum.ku.dk*
> <zysk at hum.ku.dk>
> _______________________________________________
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