Patrick Olivelle jpo at uts.cc.utexas.edu
Sun Jun 9 01:29:12 UTC 2013

Thanks to all who have responded with precision. I am deeply in debt to all of you. With best wishes,


On Jun 8, 2013, at 6:33 PM, Christopher Wallis wrote:

> I believe this verse is cited in Lorenzen's 1972 study on the Kaalamukhas and Kaapaalikas (2nd ed 1991).  At any rate, here the term Kaaruka can only mean the Laakulas aka Kaalamukhas, discussed at length in Sanderson's 2006 article The Laakulas.  This verse lists the four kinds of initiatory Shaivism -- three Atimaarga traditions plus the Mantramaarga (aka Tantric Shaivism).
> best,
> Chris
> On 8 June 2013 12:56, Patrick Olivelle <jpo at uts.cc.utexas.edu> wrote:
> Does anyone know whether the term "kāruka" has a specifically Śaiva technical meaning -- perhaps a special kind of initiate? I see this in a verse:
> kāpālikāḥ pāśupatāḥ śaivaś ca saha kārukaiḥ |
> dṛṣṭāś ced ravim īkṣeta spṛṣṭāś cet snānam ācaret ||
> Thanks.
> Patrick
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