Christopher Wallis bhairava11 at gmail.com
Sat Jun 8 23:33:34 UTC 2013

I believe this verse is cited in Lorenzen's 1972 study on the Kaalamukhas
and Kaapaalikas (2nd ed 1991).  At any rate, here the term Kaaruka can only
mean the Laakulas aka Kaalamukhas, discussed at length in Sanderson's 2006
article The Laakulas.  This verse lists the four kinds of initiatory
Shaivism -- three Atimaarga traditions plus the Mantramaarga (aka Tantric


On 8 June 2013 12:56, Patrick Olivelle <jpo at uts.cc.utexas.edu> wrote:

> Does anyone know whether the term "kāruka" has a specifically Śaiva
> technical meaning -- perhaps a special kind of initiate? I see this in a
> verse:
> kāpālikāḥ pāśupatāḥ śaivaś ca saha kārukaiḥ |
> dṛṣṭāś ced ravim īkṣeta spṛṣṭāś cet snānam ācaret ||
> Thanks.
> Patrick
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