praa.naayaama again

Judit Torzsok torzsokjudit at HOTMAIL.COM
Sat Jul 30 21:20:50 UTC 2011

This fourth phase is also mentioned in Siddhayoge"svariimata 7.21, which calls it pra"saanta and claims that it is mental (maanasa). More detailed (nondual) explanation is given in the Tantraaloka + Viveka 17.87ff, trying to read this practice into the Maaliniivijayottara (which, however, does not seem to have it). Abhinavagupta understands that the practice starts at the muulaadhaara and goes up to the dvaada"saanta. Although the Siddhayoge"svariimata usually speaks of 3 parts of praa.naayaama (praa.naayaamatraya in 17.20 as well as elsewhere, e.g. in 19.2) when it prescribes the purification of the body, it adds this "fourth" part here, in 7.21, as something particularly associated with the seed syllable of Paraa, in/ with which one must keep the breath with kumbhaka.

> Date: Sat, 30 Jul 2011 11:05:13 +0200
> From: dominic.goodall at GMAIL.COM
> Subject: [INDOLOGY] praa.naayaama again
> Dear list,
> After the interesting responses I received on and off list to my query about recaka, pūraka and kumbhaka in March, I am returning with another question about prāṇāyāma.
> Although it is commonly divided into three parts, recaka, pūraka and kumbhaka, the Nayasūtra of the Niśvāsatattvasaṃhitā divides prāṇāyāma into four, the fourth being something it calls supraśānta.
> nābhyāṃ hṛdayasaṃcārān manaś cendriyagocarāt|
> prāṇāyāmaś caturthas tu supraśāntas tu viśrutaḥ|| 4:113||
> “There is a fourth breath-exercise which is called Supraśānta [achieved] by moving [the vital energy] from the heart into the navel and [by moving] the mind away from the sense-objects.”
> This fourth part of prāṇāyāma is found also in the Svacchandatantra, which has drawn a great deal upon the Niśvāsa, and in the Tantrasadbhāvatantra, which has drawn in turn upon the Svacchanda.  And Nirajan Kafle has pointed out to me that the fourth division is to be found also in the Dharmaputrikā, a text of the Śivadharma corpus (Dharmaputrikā 1:19):
> pūrakaḥ kumbhakaś caiva recakas tadanantaram
> praśāntaś caiva vijñeyaḥ prāṇāyāmaś caturvidhaḥ.
> Is such a fourth prāṇāyāma to be found in any other traditions of yoga ?
> Dominic Goodall
> École française d’Extrême-Orient,
> Paris

-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: <>

More information about the INDOLOGY mailing list