A reference to Hitopade/sa

Christophe Vielle vielle at ORI.UCL.AC.BE
Wed Oct 9 14:15:47 UTC 2002

Dear list members,
we are working here in Louvain-la-Neuve on a critical edition and study of
a pur-a.nic text called the Jaimin-iyasa.mhit-a of the Brahm-a.n.dapur-a.na
(abbrev. JaiSa), preserved in Malayalam-script manuscripts, which might be
an early work (see C. Vielle, "An Introduction to the Jaimin-iyasa.mhit-a
of the Brahm-a.n.dapur-a.na", in M. Brockington eds, Stages and
Transitions: Temporal and historical frameworks in epic and pur-a.nic
literature. Proceedings of the Second Dubrovnik International Conference on
the Sanskrit Epics and Pur-a.nas, August 1999, Zagreb: Croatian Academy of
Sciences and Arts, p. 337-357 - I already asked some questions about it on
this list, on embryological matters and 6 a;nga yoga).

At the end of a chapter concerning king K-artav-iry-arjuna, it is told that
by order of the king the purap-alaka, mounted on a elephant and playing
drum, went through the city for proclaiming moral maxims. The word
hitopade/sa is used (v.70), and one of the maxims (v.  75) looks like a
maxim from Hitopade/sa I,7 (cf. also II, 1).

But before to conclude in favour of a direct influence of the relatively
late Hitopade/sa on the JaiSa, my questions are: 1°) what is the common use
of the word hitopade/sa "salutary instruction"  found in the MBh,
Pa?ncatantra etc. (according to MW), but outside the later work for the
title of which it was used; 2°) where these kinds of maxims can be found
outside the Pa?ncatantra literature (C-a.nakyan-iti, or even n-iti/s-astras
?); and 3°) who knows other references to similar exemples of public

Here is the passage:
/s.r.nvat-a.m sarvabh-ut-an-a.m nagare purap-alaka.h |
hitopade/sa.m kurute praj-an-a.m r-aja/s-asan-at ||70
gajam -aruhya pa.taha.m sam-ahatya paribhraman |
k-alatraye'pi matim-an udgho.sayati nitya/sa.h ||71
anityo m-anu.so deha.h satya.m sa.mbudhyat-a.m nar-a.h |
anity-ani ca vitt-ani prabh-ava/s c-atica?ncala.h ||72
sukha.m du.hkh-antar-avi.s.ta.m yauvana.m jaray-anvitam |
apramatta/s ca bh-ut-ani m.rtyur grasati sa.mtatam ||73
dharma eva paro bandhu.h sarve.s-am iha dehin-am |
apramattair n.rbhis tasm-at kartavyas tasya sa.mgraha.h ||74
dattabhukt-ava/si.s.t-ani vitt-any arthavat-am iha |
tatra tatraiva l-iyante /sma/s-an-ante sut-adaya.h ||75
karmabhogasaha.m deha.m sam-avi/sya pray-asyata.h |
j-ivasy-anugami.syete karma.n-i tu /subh-a/subhe ||76
ahor-atr-apade/sena n.r.n-am -ay-u.m.si kha.n.da/sa.h |
nik.rntan nityam udaya.m pray-aty asta.m ca bh-askara.h ||77
tasm-at sadaiva bho marty-a.h kurudhva.m hitam -atmana.h |
n-at-ita.h punar abhyeti k-alo'ya.m sarvadehin-am ||78
evam tasya (= K-artav-iry-arjunasya) pure nityam udgho.sa.h /sr-uyate n.rpa |
/sreyase sarvamarty-an-a.m pa.tah-aravam -a/srita.h ||79

Any comment will be welcome.

Dr. Christophe Vielle
Centre d'Etudes de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud
Institut orientaliste
Place Blaise Pascal 1
B - 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve
Tel. +32-(0)10-47 49 54 (office)/ -(0)2-640 62 66 (home)
E-mail: vielle at ori.ucl.ac.be

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