Punjab place names

Sudalaimuthu Palaniappan Palaniappa at AOL.COM
Thu Oct 21 02:00:43 UTC 1999

In his book "Lahore: Its history, Architectural Remains and Antiquities",
1892, pp. 1-3, Syad Muhammad Latif  says the following:

< The mythical founder of lohAwar, or Lahore, was Lov or Loh, one of the two
sons of rAmA, the hero of the famous epic-loom the ramayanA, the other son,
kash, having, according to the same tradition, founded the sister town of
kusAwar, or kasUr...

In the deshwa bhAgA,... Lahore is called lavpor...

Turning to the Mahomedan period,...fatuhUl baldin, believed to be one of the
earliest Arabic Chronicles, ...calls Lahore by the name of AlahwAr.

...al-idrisi..writing in the ninth century, calls it lohAwar. The termination
�awar is a corruption of the Sanskrit word awarna, meaning fort, and is
affixed to many Indian towns, such as sanAwar, bijAwar, peshAwar...

abu rehAn al-biruni, in his celebrated work, the kanAn, speaking from his
personal knowledge of the country at the time of mahmud�s invasion, towards
the close of the tenth century, mentions, in his description of the Himalayan
mountains that "they can be seen from tacas (taxila?) and lahAwar (Lahore)."
M. Reinaud, in his Fragments, and Elliot, read it as lauhaour, lohAovar,
lohArU, and lahor.

amir khusrow, of Delhi, writing in the latter part of the thirteenth century,
calls it lahanUr in his well-known work the kirAnus-sa�den. He says:-
"From the confines of samania to lahanUr,
There is no walled (city) but kasUr."

Mr. Thornton suggests that lahanUr is corruption of luhanagar, nUr being the
Dakhani form of nagar, as appears from the names of other towns, such as
Kalanore, Kananore, &c.

Rashid-ud-din, in his jAmiut tawarikh, completed in A.H. 710, or A.D. 1310,
calls it lahUr, "than which," he says, "there is no stronger fort."

al biruni also mentions Lahore as a Province, the capital of which was
"mandhukur", on the east of the river irAwA (ravi). baihanki calls it

Lahore is also called by the Mahomedan historians lohAr, loher, and

What was the original name of Lahore?

Can anybody identify the towns Kalanore, and Kananore? I know many names in
South India ending in -nUr where -n- and -Ur are not from nagar. Ur means a
town, village, etc.

How are the names, lahanUr, kasUr, mandkakUr, etc., explained etymologically?
Are there any more town or village names in the Punjab region (in India and
Pakistan) ending in -Ur? Thanks.

S. Palaniappan

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