C.R. Selvakumar selvakum at VALLUVAR.UWATERLOO.CA
Mon Mar 15 22:55:02 UTC 1999

*>however, this Kannada change is occurs only c. 900/1000 AD (Drav.
*>specialists please tell us) .  The Skt word kalaha, however,  is attested
*>already in the Upanisads, c. 500 BCE... and Skt kalaha thus cannot come
*>from Kannada.

    Professor Witzel, I believe Skt. kalaha comes from tamil kalakam.
    Many tamils pronounce -ka- as -ha-. Examples: ulakam (= world) as ulaham;
    akalam (= breadth or width) as ahalam; makan ( = son) as mahan;
    akappadu = ahappadu etc.
*Yes. Kannada change of p to h is during the historic period, i.e 10th
*century. It cannot be a borrowing from Kannada. Burrow in Dravidian Studies
*VII traced
*Skt. kalanka- (51), kalaha (54), kalaapa (56) to the group of forms to be
*reconstructed as *kal-a (DEDR 1303, 1299). In the last chapter of Sanskrit
*Lanaguge, he added Skt. kalu.sa- to this group. Ta. kalaavu, kalaay 'to be
*displeased, to get angry, quarrel' have a long derivative vowel which looks
*to an underlying laryngeal *kal-aH-wu/-y, in which case h in kalaha- could
*be a reflex of a PD laryngeal. Only Old Tamil has long -aa in the derivative
*syllable. I have to look for parallel loan words with h preserved in Skt.

     I don't understand Prof. Krishnamurti's statment.
     Even in modern Tamil, we've words like kulavu > kulaavu
     ulavu > ulaavu, taTavu > taTaavu etc.

*I wrote a full-fledged paper on PD laryngeal; it surfaces as aaydam  (a
*h-type of sound)in Early Tamil and as h in some of the other Dravidian lgs.
*Prof. Witzel, see if you can get hold of  a copy of PILC Journal of Dravidic
*Studies 7:1 (1997; actually out in 1998 March).(PILC=Pondicherry Inst of Lg
*and Culture).

     If the article would be available on the web somewhere it would
     be useful.
*>Last point : if kala- is onomatopoetic, the Tamil etc word kalApa 'peacock
*>feather/tail ' may, just may be a loan translation from Munda where
*>mara('k) 'peacock' belongs to the root  'to cry'.
*Burrow (1948) gives the meaning 'bundle' as the basis of semantic connection
*with 'peacock's tail' and compares it with Ta. Ma. Ka. kalappu'collection of
*things, mass' etc.(1299).

     Tamil word for the 'train' of the peacock is 'tOkai', which has
     the connotation of 'collection' (toku = collect), I think.

*Bhadriraju Krishnamurti

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