Fortunatov's Law and tolkAppiyar's rules
Miguel Carrasquer Vidal
mcv at WXS.NL
Wed Aug 12 17:46:11 UTC 1998
Vidhyanath Rao <vidynath at MATH.OHIO-STATE.EDU> wrote:
>Miguel Carrasquer Vidal <mcv at WXS.NL> wrote:
>> *s => => h => h
>> *sC => => => s
>> *{ruki}s => s^ => => s^
>> *k^ => c^ => c => s
>> *k^C => c^ => s^ => s^
>
>I missed this point till now.
>
>The change c^ -> c cannot be later than the second palatalization (change
>of PIE *k/*k-super-w to c^ before e/i) which must have preceded the
>merger of e/o/a. So, under the above scenario, the merger of e/o/a must
>be later than the split of Indian from Iranian.
>
>I find this quite incredible.
It depends on the exact phonetics of Proto-Indo-Iranian.
Clearly, the satem and the ruki-phenomena are the oldest, as they are
shared by Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic and Armenian. For "proto-satem"
(proto-East-Indo-Eropean), we can assume:
PIE PEIE
*k^ > *c^ (satem)
*ke > *k^e (palatal allophone of /k/ before e, i)
*s > *s
*rs > *s^ (or *is, *us, *ks: RUKI-s)
In Indo-Iranian we have:
PIE PEIE Avest Skt
*k^ *c^ s s'
*ke *k^ c^ c^
*s *s h s
*rs *s^ s^ s.
After the (Indo-Iranian) merger of e/a/o, PEIE *k^ (i.e. PIE *k, *kw
before *e, *i) became phonemic rather than allophonic. But was it
already [c^] or simply [k^]? If it was [c^], then PIE *k^ (the satem
sound) must have already been something else in PII, probably *s',
from which it follows that RUKI-s was already *s. ("retroflex"
shibilant) in PII:
PIE PII
*k^ *s' (> s in Iranian)
*ke *c^
*s *s (> h in Iranian)
*rs *s.
[PII == Skt. in this analyis, at least for these four sounds]
On the other hand, if we reconstruct *k^ (palatalized [k]) for PIE
*ke/i, *kwe/i, we get:
PIE PII
*k^ *c^ (> s' in Skt., > c > s in Iranian)
*ke *k^ (> c^ in Skt, Iranian)
*s *s
*rs *s^ (> s. in Skt.)
Both options are possible.
The same two analyses are possible for Balto-Slavic, where we have:
PIE Balt Slav PBS?
*k^ s^ s c^ ~ s'
*ke k c^ k ~ k (allophonically: [k^])
*s s s s ~ s
*rs s^ x s^ ~ s.
We know the 2nd. palatalization in Slavic is recent. Ruki-s has
shifted back to /x/ in Slavic, which must have happened under the
influence of satem-*k^ becoming /s^/, which means that it wasn't /s^/
initially. What was it? The two likely candidates are /c^/ and /s'/
(and consequently, RUKI-s becomes either /s^/ or /s./).
=======================
Miguel Carrasquer Vidal
mcv at wxs.nl
Amsterdam
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