Other Festivals Too.

JAYABARATHI jaybee at tm.net.my
Sat Mar 29 09:41:57 UTC 1997

Palaniappa at aol.com wrote:
> In a message dated 97-04-08 01:37:12 EDT, vidya at cco.caltech.edu (Vidyasankar
> Sundaresan) writes:
> << On Sun, 6 Apr 1997, JAYABARATHI wrote:
>  [..]
>  > The Medeival Tamils followed the Solar calender more faithfully.
>  > In the Chola and Pandya inscriptions, we find that the Tamil months were
> actually named after the Signs of the
>  > Zodiac.
>  > When the Sun was in Aries i.e. MEsha, The corresponding Tamil month was
> called MEda NyAyiRu..Taurus(Rishabha)
>  > =Idaba NyAyiRu.; Pisces = MIna NyAyiRu.
>  The Malayalam calender still names its months meDam, iDavam etc. As in
>  many other things, Malayalam speaking people have preserved more of this
>  Tamil heritage than contemporary Tamil speakers.
>  Vidyasankar
>   >>
> In the post-Classical Tamil work cilappatikAram, a specific date for burning
> down of Madurai is specified. I am giving it below.
> In the month of ATi (AshADa)
> in the dark fortnight
> of the kArttika asterism ("azal cEr kuTTattu")
> on the day of aSTami
> on a Friday
> the famous Madurai will be consumed by fire.
> It is obvious lunar month was followed here. Considering the fact that the
> author of the text iLaGko was supposed to be from Kerala, I wonder what any
> one can say about which calendar was used. The present reckoning of years in
> Kerala is called kollam era based on the coming to power of some kings near
> kollam around 800 AD(?) Do we know what calendar they followed before that?
> Some people from Tirunelveli District also use kollam era (at least some of
> my relatives still do) probably due to Keralan rule over parts of Tirunelveli
> and Kanyakumari Districts.
> Regards
> S. PalaniappanBravo Mr.Palaniappan,
You have pointed out that the lunar calender has been used in the post-
Sangam literature of SilappadhikAram, which mentions the month of Adi.
I appreciate that.
In concurrence with your words,may I be allowed to corroborate further...
Ther is a verse associated with the Kamba RAmAyanam which states the day, 
month, and year of the arangEtram of it.It is pupported to have taken 
place in Saka Era 807, month of PANGUNI,on the nakshatra of Hastham.
eNNiya sakAththam eNNUtru
Elzin mEl sadaiyan vAlzvu
naNNiya veNNainallUr
thannile kambanAdan
paNNiya rAmakAthai
panguni aththa nAlil
kaNNiya arngin munne
kavi arangEtrinAne !
This verse is definitely post-Kamban and has been interpolated into the 
main work.However, most scholars do not question the veracity of the 
verse.However late it might be, it could not be far behind in time.
The point to be noted is that, while Panguni is found in this song, the 
inscriptions of that time were mentioning it as mIna nyAyiru.
But PANGUNI is also mentioned by name in the famous sangam liiterature-
none other than the famous and glorious PuRanAnURu itself!
In puRanAnURu 229th song it is mentioned that, on a particular day of
the month of PANGUNI , there were ominous readings made of the nakshatras 
kAthigai,anusham,uththaram, and mirugasIridam, while a star fell from the 
sky , heralding the death of the CeramAn king , yAnaikkat cEy kanai
kkAl irumpoRai.
Adu iyal alzalkUttaththu
Arirul arai iravil
mudappanaiyathu vEr mudhalAk
kadaikulaththuk kayangkAyap
PANGUNI uyar ulzuvaththuth
thalainAN mIn nilai thiriya
nilai nAN mIn adhan ethir Er tharath
thonnAN mInthuRai padiya .....etc.,
I did not mention earlier on, that  there are two versions of the Solar 
Calender used in India. 
One follows the fixed Zodiac System whereas the other follows the Moving 
Zodiac system.
The calender based on the fixed zodiac is known as the Vikrami calender 
and that of the moving is called the Saka Calender.This differance is 
because of something known as the Precession of Equinox.The saka month 
always starts on the 20th or the 21st of the corresponding Christian 
month, while the Vikrami does so on the 13th or 14th of the corresponding 
Christian  month.
The fixed Zodiac system is known as the Nirayana, and that of the moving 
Zodiac is known as the Sayana.
Indian Astrologers use the fixed system more often for casting horscopes 
and predicting the events of an individual, country, or the world.
The moving system is used in meteorology, and for keeping records.
In the Saka Era, both the MeshAdi (Solar) and ChaitrAdi (lunar) 
nomenclature have been used.
So it is possible that both systems of the Solar Calender together with
the Lunar Calender had been used since ancient times.
The Kollam era started in 824 A.D.It is generally accepted to correspond
to the founding of the city of Kollam.This era has been used in both the
Kerala and the Southern Pandiya Country. In the same area , the Kali Yuga 
Era was also used. We find two epigraphical records in Anaimalai rock-cut 
temple in Madurai District.
So , Before the advent of the kollam era, the Kali Yuga era must have 
been used.
In Kerala there is still another calender based on the transit of the 
planet Jupiter.This is known as VIYAALZA VALLAM.The Tamil records  of	
Baskara Ravi Varman are dated with this system.
The southern Pandiyan territory is the present Kanyakumari and 
Tirunelveli Districts.

jaybee at tm.net.my
Sungai Petani,

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