Sanskrit characters for Wikner font

girish at girish at
Thu May 30 22:59:26 UTC 1996

I am relating some questions on behalf Mr. Charles Wikner who is
not an indology list member.  Mr. Wikner is continuing to develop
his Sanskrit font and would like to have input from indology members.

Mr. Wikner needs some printed examples of the numeric accent encoding
for the Saamaveda, where the numbers 1, 2, and 3 appear over the letters.
If you can mail him some examples please contact me so I can provide
his mailing address.

Here are some questions he asked that I cannot confidently answer.
If you can provide any information on these questions please send you
comments to WIKNER at or send to me and I will
forward.  Please also cc: to me since I am interested in the answers.

Regarding the Saamaveda notes:

>1. Is there a one-to-one translation between the numerals and the 
>   accent system (e.g. 1=udaatta), if so, what the that translation?
>   The encoding scheme would then be something like a.<gna.> aa.^ ....
>2. Or is this a musical notation independent of the accent system?
>   If so, I would use a different encoding scheme: a.2gna.3 aa.1 ....
>3. In the second line, there are further symbols above the line that I
>   can't figure out: at the end if _ni_ and _hotaa_ is an extra symbol
>   after the numeral -- what are these?
[This question refers to some printing that has what looks like an 'M'
rotated 90 degrees and next to one of the numeric accents. GS]
>4. What of those syllables that do not have a numeral above them?

There is another question about two versions of the Yajurveda anunaasika
(not including the 'g' version) that are 1) like candrabindu with a viraama
under it in the regular character position and 2) somewhat like a script
English 'U' with a bindu over it also appearing in the regular character
position.  Is it true that both are pronounced the same, with (1) appearing
after short vowels and (2) appearing after long vowels?

Additionally, what is the significance of the different versions of
characters used for 1) 'a' (and 'aa', 'o', 'au') [one starting like
'3' and one like 'p' with hatch marks], 2) 'j~n' [one more curved for
lack of a better description and one slightly like '~n'], and
3) '' [one vaguely like an ampersand and one somewhat like a
"reversed" '~n']?  Are all "proper" Sanskrit forms or are some only
appropriate for Hindi?

Mr. Wikner has been very receptive to suggestions for his font.  I hope
members of this list can provide him with information to help make
his font even more useful.


Girish Sharma
San Diego, CA
girish at

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