upaadhmaaniiya and jihvaamuuliiya

Sat Oct 7 13:26:16 UTC 1995

Regarding the recent discussion on Upa. and Jih.:

1. Some information about the disappearance of both characters in 
inscriptions is found already in Buehler, Palaeography
-- a hunddred years ago.

2. Apart from what A. Parpola and M. Fujii reported from Southern MSS, 
the sign for Upa. is occasionally also found in printed texts from 
S.India  (but as far as I remember the symbol is used for both the Upa. 
and the Jih.)

3.Regarding Kashmir, both signs are of course used throughout the range 
of texts, except for some very recent MSS which are influenced by the 
N.Indian use of the Visarga.
In proper Kashmirian MS the  Visarga sign appears only at the end of a 
paragraph or at the end of verses: a true voiceless h in pause.

4. However, in Kashmirian pronunciation (both Vedic and other) both 
allophones of the Visarga/s/r have disappeard from quite some time.
They are usually  substituted, just as the Visarga, by lengthening 
the preceding vowel. Details in Yasuke Ikari (ed.), Studies on the  
Nilamata, Kyoto 1994. 

5. In some Vedic recitation both are retained. For example, the southern 
Kanvas say [naxkalpataam] where the northern Vajasaneyins say - in usual 
N/W. Indian style) -  [naha kalpataam].

We are in need of more investigations of this and similar problems for 
questions of editing and of Vedic/grammatical studies.


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