jenni.cover at URSYS.COM.AU
Tue Mar 23 19:03:12 EDT 2010
I have been enjoying this discussion and would like to contribute the use of these words in an 18th century Sanskrit text named Bodhasāra by Narahari. I am completing the translation of Bodhasāra for publication in a few months. It is a predominately Vedanta text, but the scope of the text is vast, including reflections on Advaita, many types of Yoga (patāñjali, haṭha, laya, mantra, bhakti, rāja), Śiva-Śakti, Sāṃkhya, daily ritual practices, hearing the Vedas and Purāṇas, worship of Kr̥ṣṇa and Śiva etc.etc. There are various references to the Yogavāsiṣṭha and Purāṇas.
Bodhasāra uses the word Mokṣa (in various forms) many times, has a section of 10 verses on nirvāṇa, and a section of 18 verses on jīvanmuktī. The words nirvāṇa and jīvanmuktī are also used in a few other verses. Narahari has many delightful things to say about all of these, but to summarise very briefly and generally.
The essence of Mokṣa is jīvabrahmaikya (union of individual and universal or individual and brahman).
In his section on nirvāṇa, having said that it can’t be described, Narahari gives insights by saying what it isn’t and by saying that it is the end (anta) for sacred texts, ascetics, instruction and discernment. He concludes by saying that brahman must be really heard (not just heard about). If brahman is to be then there can only brahman.
His section on jīvanmuktī celebrates the festival of duality and non-duality. He says that only for the one who has attained jīvanmuktī does the great festival of duality and non-duality happen. Among other things he describes it as a play of īsvara, a partial expression of īsvara’s own form.
If these diacritics aren’t coming through please tell me.
Dr Jennifer Cover
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