Kashmir, Tamilnadu, Panini, Abhinavagupta, etc.

N. Ganesan naga_ganesan at HOTMAIL.COM
Thu Jan 7 14:40:53 EST 1999


Reading Prof. Aklujkar, Interpreting VP 2.486 historically
(Part 3), UMich, 1991

parvatAd Agamam labdhvA ...

Because the Mountain is referred by a very general term
'parvata' in the South, could it be the well known
Malaya mountain occuring in many Sanskrit texts?
(eg: dakSiNAcala in Monier Williams, dakSiNAdri in
kAvyAdarza etc.,
dakSiNApathe potalako nAma parvata (GaNDavyUha, p. 158,
ch. 29, line 20 in P. L. Vaidya, 1960, Buddhist Sanskrit texts,
The Mithila Institute, Dharbhanga)

The first two parts were given before. The last two
parts are given here.

Regards,
N. Ganesan

Notes:
--------------

Part III:
---------
    Aklujkar, Interpreting VP 2.486 historically
    (Part 3):
    p.4
    "He (Peterson) did not even attempt to answer
    preliminary questions such as: Is it known
    that Chittore specialized in the study of grammar
    or of PataJjali's MB in the early centuries of
    Christian era? Was it considered or likely to
    be considered "SOUTHERN" by Bhartrihai or his
    students (1.2)? Was it, or was it at least believed
    to be, a repository of mss. of rare works?
    IS CANDRACARYA SAID TO HAVE VISITED IT? To propose
    an identification without raising even a few
    of these questions is to show disregard for the
    context of parvatAt (see also the point I make in
    note 13)"

The Southern mountain, Malaya is called so
by DaNDin & in Monier-williams dictionary.
Tamil works before 5th century, puRanAnURu
and CilappatikAram calls Malaya as the Southern
mountain and compares it to the Northen mountain, Himalayas.
It is called "parvata" in GaNDavyUha in 2-3rd
centuries AD. Chinese and Tibetan Lama, Taranatha
say that Candragomin went to Potalaka in Malaya
mount and settled there. Taranata describes
Santivaramn's journey to Potala in Malaya too.

Taaraanaatha, the Tibetan lama, says that after
CandragomI prayed to Tara and Avalokitezvara in
DhanyakaTaka and building a hundred temples for
each of them, he goes to settle down Potalka mount.
Taranatha's history of Buddhism, p. 202ff.
"In the DhAnyakaTaka caitya there, he [=CandragomI] worshipped
TArA and Arya Avalokitezvara and built a hundred
temples for each of them. He went to the
Potala hill and is still living there without
renouncing his mortal body".

 Candragomin who saved Mahabhasya tradition
from extinction settled in Potalaka in the
 deep South, according to Taaraanaatha (1600 AD).
This is consistent with the Tamil
tradition (from 11th century onwards) that
Siddhas' residence par excellence
is Potiyil/Potikai mountain.

Ptolomy calls Potikai(Potiyil) Mountain
as Bettigo. Mahabhaarata vanaparvan has Agastya
in the Malaya mountain. Dandin calls Potiyil
as the Southern mountain(dakSiNAdri).
Dandin's usage parallels with
the earlier Tamil tradition from Sangam era
onwards that Malaya is THE  Southern
mountain. PuRanaanUru and Cilappatikaaram
refers to Himalayas and Potiyil (Malaya)
mountains in the same line. They are
the cultural symbols of North and South
in early Tamil literature.

Candragomin, who saved the Mahabhasya tradition from
extinction went and settled down at the Mount Potalaka.
He is still living there, according to Taranatha.

-----------------------------------------------------

Part IV
-------

    Aklujkar, Interpreting VP 2.486 historically
    (Part 3):
    p.4
    "He (Peterson) did not even attempt to answer
    preliminary questions such as: Is it known
    that Chittore specialized in the study of grammar
    or of PataJjali's MB in the early centuries of
    Christian era? Was it considered or likely to
    be considered "SOUTHERN" by Bhartrihai or his
    students (1.2)? Was it, or was it at least believed
    to be, a repository of mss. of rare works?
    IS CANDRACARYA SAID TO HAVE VISITED IT? To propose
    an identification without raising even a few
    of these questions is to show disregard for the
    context of parvatAt (see also the point I make in
    note 13).

    The more elaborate statement made by Scharfe is open to
    the same charge. In suggesting that parvata should be
    identified with CitrakuuTa, he asks none of the above
    questions. In addition, he makes a series of unproved
    assumptions."

    p. 24
    "The implicit refusal to take parvata as 'mountain'
    is especially remarkable in the case of Weber and later
    researchers mentioned here. Weber (1862:161n) and
    Kielhorn (1974b) knew at the time of their relevant
    writings that Taaraanaatha TarkavAcaspati had given
    a specification of parvata as Citra-kuuTa or Tri-kuuTa.
    An earlier edition of Taaraanaatha's zabdArtha-ratna
    (the reference acc. to the third edition available
    to me is 1902:2) is mentioned by Weber, and Taaraanaatha's
    edition of SiddhAnta-kaumudI (1864:2) and Weber's
    article are mentioned by Kielhorn. Kielhorn also knew
    that PuNyarAja, an ancient commentator of VP 2.486.
    had understood paravatAt to be a reference to a region.
    Finally, it is beyond doubt that Bhandarkar and most of
    the later scholars mentioned here exhibit an awareness
    of Kielhorn's writings."

Please observe that tri-kuuTa and citra-kuuTa in
the parvata region of the Malaya mountain range has
historical validity.

The 'Saivaite tradition always says that NaTaraaja
dances in five halls (sabhA/man2Ru in Tamil):
a) ruby hall - ratna sabhA - ThiruvAlaGgaaDu
(Karaikkaal Ammai's Nataraja decads are
on TiruvaalangaaDu in 5th century. In this
century, Auguste Rodin wrote a French poem
seeing Tiruvaalangaadu NaTarAja in Madras museum
when Ananda K. Coomaaraswamy took him there.)
b) golden hall - kanaka sabhA - Chidambaram
c) silver hall - rajata sabhA - Madurai
d) copper hall - tAmra sabhA - TirunelvEli
(River TaamraparNI cuts across that town)
e) painting hall - citra sabhA - Potikai/kuRRaalam.
(The citrakuuTa occurs in TiruviLaiyaaDal puraaNam.)

citra sabhA for naTarAja is so named because
Malaya/Potityil/Potalaka is also known as CitrakuuTa.

There are many instances in Tamil literature where
Malaya is called Tri-kuuTa mountains.

Hence, by calling in very general terms `parvatAt',
the VP 2.486 may refer to Malaya mountain of the
deep South.

Regards,
N. Ganesan





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