Dear Patrick,

See also chapters VI.42-43 of the Mokṣopāya (MU) in which Śiva expounds to the sage Vasiṣṭha that both forms of worship, namely the "outward/outer" (bāhya) and "interior/inner" (antar) or "mental" (mānasa) "worship" (pūjā), are actually and exclusively realized as ongoing ātmadhyāna. [According to his own words (MU VI.33.12), Śiva teaches here the "excellent" (vara) or "very best" (anuttama) form of devārcana, which, when performed, will lead immediately to liberation.]

Best wishes,
Roland Steiner