/jñ/ is has been a very unstable sequence in India for a very long time, and its varying treatment can be traced in part through Prakrits (see Pischel’s Prakrit Grammar, §88, §119, §303). Already, in Aśoka’s edicts we see a simple (very rarely doubled) /n/ (Kalsa in N, Dhauli in E) or /ṇ/ (NW and far south) or /ñ/ (at Girnar) in forms like ānapayati or āṇapayati, ‘orders’ (cf. Sanskrit ājñāpayati), with [n] or [ṇ]; Pali has /ñ/ (pronounced [ny]) initially and /ññ/ medially.
One can sum up by saying that the initial /j/ has a tendency to disappear, or to survive in a minimal way in western India as an unexploded /d/ — that is, the beginning of a /j/ = [dzh/ without the fricative which is dropped before the [ny], OR realizing the /j/ with a velar stop instead.
The options by region, generally, seem to be [gy] with or without accompanying nasalization much of the Hindi belt, [dny] in Maharasthtra and thereabouts, and either [ny] or [gn]/[kin] in the Tamil sphere, where an epenthetical vowel is inserted to break up the cluster. This also happens in northwestern India, where we get Ismaili works called ginān (< jñāna) from Sindh, Gujarat, and Panjab.
What does NOT seem to happen much is what Westerners today most often produce: j + epenthetical vowel + n
The regional variation is discussed (too) briefly on p. 78 of:Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. 1960. ‘The Pronunciation of Sanskrit’. Indian Linguistics 21, 61–82.
In my edition of the Nīlarudropaniṣad (p. 87), I use the Maharashtrian pronunciation as diagnostic to identify the origin of a particular variant reading in the text:https://www.academia.edu/
408391/The_N%C4%ABlarudropani% E1%B9%A3ad_and_the_Paippal%C4% 81dasa%E1%B9%83hit%C4%81_A_ Critical_Edition_with_ Translation_of_the_Upani%E1% B9%A3ad_and_N%C4%81r%C4%81ya% E1%B9%87as_D%C4%ABpik%C4%81
I discuss the Prakrit and Tamil reflexes of the jñ conjunct a bit here as well (on pp. 425–426):
Timothy Lubinhttp://home.wlu.edu/~lubintProfessor of Religion and Adjunct Professor of LawChair of the Department of ReligionChair of the Middle East and South Asia Studies Program204 Tucker HallWashington and Lee UniversityLexington, Virginia 24450
From: INDOLOGY <indology-bounces@list.
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Reply-To: Harry Spier <email@example.com>
Date: Monday, January 15, 2018 at 4:01 PM
To: INDOLOGY <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: [INDOLOGY] Pronunciation of jñ
Dear list members,
I've been asked about the pronounciation of the conjunct jñ .
Coulson writes:"jña: the pronounciation of this varies wid is that it is a palatalisation so to speak en bloc of an original gn, In some places, for instance, it is like gya, in others dnya. . . . The point about jñ is that it is a palatal isation so to speak en bloc of an original gn.. . . . Perhaps the most approprate of the modern pronunciations to adopt is therefore gnya which (by adding y to gn) thus crudely represent a palatalisation."
1) Is jña ever pronounced in India as jnya and if so where?
2) where in India are the different pronounciations Coulson lists (gya, dnya, gnya) located?
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