That's very helpful, Matthew.  Thank you!

When I formulated this question, I imagined you would be the one to respond.

All the best,
Dr. Jeffery D. Long
Professor of Religion and Asian Studies
Elizabethtown College
Elizabethtown, PA

Series Editor, Explorations in Indic Traditions: Theological, Ethical, and Philosophical
Lexington Books

"One who makes a habit of prayer and meditation will easily overcome all difficulties and remain calm and unruffled in the midst of the trials of life."  (Holy Mother Sarada Devi)

"We are a way for the Cosmos to know itself." (Carl Sagan)

On Monday, April 17, 2017 4:45 PM, Matthew Kapstein <> wrote:

Sorry Jeff, but it's not quick and easy. The interpretation of the trisvabhāva
is far from settled and indeed was not quite settled even within the tradition.
Though your suggestion about the possible relationship with the three kāya-s
is of interest, I do not think that it can be supported simpliciter by the extant
sources. A recent discussion, by Mario D'Amato, that does consider the soteriological dimensions
of the three natures doctrine, and references much of the previous scholarship is:


Matthew Kapstein
Directeur d'études,
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes

Numata Visiting Pro
fessor of Buddhist Studies,
The University of Chicago