Many thanks to all the members for sending me useful information about the “eight types of marriages” in non-Tamil texts.
I think I need to read and search further.
I’m looking for what exactly is “taught” to the bride at the wedding.
The Tamil word “kaRpu; kaṟpu; கற்பு” is normally understood to mean “chastity; marital fidelity” and is invariably associated with women.
Unfortunately (?) / Truthfully (!), this word (“kaRpu; kaṟpu; கற்பு”) is NOT restricted to women as we know from ancient Tamil literature. The semantics of the word “kaRpu; kaṟpu; கற்பு)” is “learning/maturing.” kaRpu < kal “to mature, learn."
So, naturally I want to know what the bride was “told” to “learn” during the wedding ceremony. Was the bridegroom “told/taught” to be “chaste?”
[I wish I had the opportunity to learn Sanskrit when I was growing up in South India and had the capability to understand what was chanted during my wedding ceremony. I don’t think even my husband understood what was recited by the “prohit/priest” and he was asked to repeat!]
When I gather relevant information for my quest and manage to write an article comparing the Tamil and non-Tamil perspectives, I’d like to send it to interested scholars for feedback.
Thanks and regards,
Dear List Members,
I’m re-searching/re-studying the Tamil text iRaiyanAr kaLaviyal (iṟaiyaṉār kaḷaviyal; இறையனார் களவியல்).
In this text, a comparison is made between the “gandharva” type of marriage among the “eight types of marriages” (of the Vedic tradition?) to kaLavu (kaḷavu; களவு) of the Tamil type.
I would appreciate to have access to the earliest reference (and relevant interpretations) of the “eight types of marriages (ashTavivAha)” as mentioned in the Vedic (?) tradition.
I have several questions, but for now here are my specific questions:
1. In which type of marriage(s) did a woman have the right to choose her partner/husband?
2. What was the basic criterion for giving away a bride in marriage to someone OR taking a bride?
3. What is told/informed to a bride and groom during the wedding ceremony about “marital fidelity?”
4. What is the precise Vedic (?) term for “marital fidelity?”
Thanks and regards,