recaka, p •uuraka , kum bhaka
pcbisschop at GOOGLEMAIL.COM
Tue Mar 22 15:30:21 UTC 2011
An early attestation for the terms in the context of praa.naayaama is the
Nyaayaagamaanusaari.nii of Si.mhasuuri (C6th?), the commentary on the
Dvaada"saaranayacakra of Mallavaadin. The terms occur in an important
passage on .Sa.da"ngayoga, clearly referring to a "Saiva tradition of yoga,
thus confirming your hypothesis. The passage (p.332, ll. 18--20, edition
Jambuuvijayajii) reads as follows:
praa.naayaamas trividha.h -- recaka.h kumbhaka.h puuraka iti| tatra recaka
aantara.m vaayu.m bahir ni.skraa"sayati naasikaadvaare.na| puuraka.h baahyam
anta.h prave"sya puurayati| kumbhaka.h puur.nakumbhavad aspanda.m vaayu.m
I don't know of an earlier source for these terms than Kau.n.dinya's work.
On Tue, Mar 22, 2011 at 10:02 AM, Dominic Goodall <dominic.goodall at gmail.com
> Many thanks, Christophe, for these references.
> What I was hoping for was something closer in date to Kau.n.dinya’s
> Pa~ncaarthabhaa.sya (C4th–C6th??), which I imagine to be considerably
> earlier than the Yogabhaa.syavivara.na (C7th–9th??), and earlier than the
> passages you quote. I was wondering whether anybody might be aware of
> evidence that would weaken or strengthen the hypothesis that the
> recaka-puura.na-kumbhaka terminology comes from a Shaiva tradition of yoga.
> After Kau.n.dinya, the next passage in which the terminology occurs, it
> seems to me, may be chapter 4 of the Nayasuutra of the
> Ni"svaasatattvasa.mhitaa (C6th?), and there kumbhaka has joined recaka and
> On 21-Mar-2011, at 3:37 PM, Christophe Vielle wrote:
> Dear Dominic,
> I do not have any idea of the relative date ascribed to the
> Yoga-yaajña-valkya where the terms are used (6.24-25), but there is also the
> BhaagavataPuraa.na 3.28.9,
> and also the Ii/svaragiitaa of the KuurmaPuraa.na (XI.36 transl. Dumont
> 1933: 142-3):
> recaka.h puuraka/s caiva praa.naayaamo 'tha kumbhaka.h /
> procyate sarva/saastre.su yogibhir yatamaanasai.h //
> (nothing seen in the paa/supatayoga of the VaaP 10.73 sq. // MaarkP ch. 39
> Bibl. Ind., mainly on maatraas in the praa.naayaama)
> See also the later Ii/saana/sivagurudevapaddhati (IV - Yogapaada, pa.tala
> 2, v. 42 sq. = TSS vol. 4 p. 625),
> and the JaiSa (unpublished) adh. 51 (or 52) v. 35:
> recapuurakakumbhaadinyaayenaabhyasata.h /sanai.h /
> a/se.sapaapak.sayak.rt praa.naayaamo dinedine //
> Dear list,
> I hope you won't mind a another terminological discussion related to yoga !
> Is it known when the terminology of recaka, p•raka/p•ra?a, kumbhaka first
> started to be used for prÇ?ÇyÇma ?
> It seems that the Yogas•tra (2.49) and YogabhÇ?ya speak rather of ÊvÇsa and
> praÊvÇsa (in 2.49).
> In the tradition of commentaries on the s•tras perhaps it is the
> YogabhÇ?yavivara?a which first uses the recaka-p•raka-kumbhaka terminology ?
> Kau??inya's PañcÇrthabhÇ?ya (on PÇÊupata 1.16) refers to recaka and p•ra?a.
> Are there other attestations likely to be earlier than the
> YogabhÇ?yavivara?a ?
> Dominic Goodall
> École française d'Extrême-Orient,
> Sign-up to Dropbox using the following link and get 2.25 gigabytes of
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