References to CaNDaala

Mikael Aktor aktor789 at HOTMAIL.COM
Mon Sep 17 06:37:57 UTC 2001

The earliest references to candalas and paulkasas are, according to Kane's History of Dharmasastra, Vaj.Samhita 30.17 and 30.21 / Tai.Brahmana 3.4.14 / 3.4.17. The upanishadic references are: ChU 5.10.7, 5.24.4 and BAU 4.3.22. But apart from the Vedic references candalas are mentioned in a very large range of old literary genres. For dharmasutras and -smrtis and their commentaries (but also for many of the older references), you may see my Ph.D. thesis _Ritualisation and Segregation: The Untouchability complex in the scholarly literature on dharma with special reference to Parasarasmrti and Parasaramadhaviya_, University of Copenhagen, 1997. I guess you can acquire it through interlibrary loan.

George Hart also wrote:

> evidence is, in my opinion, conclusive that jaati is pre-Aryan and
> existed in prehistoric South India (and probably at a very early time
> in the rest of South Asia). 

Could you please refer to some of your works where this evidence is presented.

All the best
Mikael Aktor
Mikael Aktor, assistant professor, Ph.D.,
Center for the Study of Religions, University of Southern Denmark,
Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

Phone: +45 6550 3318 - +45 3696 9054 (home)
Fax: 6593 2375 - E-mail: aktor at

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "George Hart" <ghart at SOCRATES.BERKELEY.EDU>
Sent: Sunday, September 16, 2001 7:39 PM
Subject: References to CaNDaala

> I am looking a bit further into the institution of caste (jaati),
> which I have shown is documented in Tamil Sangam literature.  [...]

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