N. Ganesan naga_ganesan at HOTMAIL.COM
Sun Dec 31 23:43:00 UTC 2000

Let me give some more parallel Dravidian examples from
a sister language for the assimilation observed in the
words: karnATaka/kannaDa.

a) Consider the tamil word, "kan2n2al" = sugar cane.
Old sangam literature talks of sugar cane as of black
color. "kArk karumpin2 kamaz Alai" - paTTin2ap pAlai.
Obviously, karunal > kan2n2al is by assimilation.
Indeed, we're fortunate to have attestation by
Sambandhar of "karunal" = sugar cane.

         iruvarkku eri Aki nimirntAn2
         uruvil periyALoTu cErum
         *karunal paravai kamaz kAzi*
         maruvap piriyum vin2ai mAyntE.  (Tevaram 1.34.9)

Both "kamaz-tal" (=emitting fragrance) and
"paravai" (=field) occur along with sugar cane in
Tamil literature. The other word for sugar cane,
'karumpu' means also 'black' cane. This
karunal/kan2n2al assimilation happens in
"kan2n2aG karEl" 'pitch black' and so on.

b) 'kan2n2am' = "hole, to excavate" is related to the
root, 'kallu-tal' = to dig. Interestingly, this tamil 'kallu-tal'
is the root for Skt. kalA as well or tamil
'kalvi' = education.

c) Like karnATaka/kannaDa pair, nerunal/nen2n2al = yesterday.

d) Compare parutti = cotton with parunal/pan2n2al = cotton.

-nal in nerunal, karunal etc. is a common noun ending, For
example, "porunal" = porunai river (erroneously sanskritized
as tAmraparNI). This -nal ending is sometimes used as -al,
(nal/al like nIr/Iram where nIr = 'water', & Iram = 'wet'),
'porunan2' means 'warrior' as well as 'bard', both having
to do with 'contact'. Tamil "pon2" = gold and metal seems
to use this assimilation, ie., porun > pon2,
(Cf. polam = gold, porutu = to fight, poruntu = to contact).


   Both the words, Karnataka and KannaDa go back to the
same roots in Dravidian, and they are not from any
other langauge root as far as I can see. I would
very much appreciate and request Kannada scholars like
Prof. Vasundara Filliozat, Dr. Harihareshvara
and Prof. R. Zydenbos on this list to explain
how the words, KannaDa and Karnataka are explained
in KannaDa sources.

   In Tamil, CilappatikAram (pre-5th century) mentions
"karunaTar", the Karnataka people. Dr. Vasundhara told
me that Vijayanagar empire is a misnomer, and all
early inscriptions mention only Karnataka empire.
I found a valuable reference linking the words -
Karnataka and KannaDa. In the 11th century
tiruviLaiyATal purANam by perumpaRRappuliyUr nampi
(called as 'old' TP, since more elaborate TP from th
17th century also exists.) KaLabhra rulers are
said to come from "kan2n2a maNTalam".
Clearly, "kan2n2a maNTalam" refers to

karnATaka/kannAD can be explained in two ways:
a) "kalnAD" = boulder country, part of Deccan,
also, 'malEnAD' in Hassan area.
b) "karunAD" = country of black earth,
Usually black earth signifies fertility
and hence praised.
I seek guidance from KannaDa experts as to
whether a) or b) is correct.

Earlier, I have shown in this list, the
consonant assimilation from Skt. to Pkt.
follows the pattern exhibited in Dravidian.
and hence an areal feature in all of India.
See my mail, and Parpola and K. Nachimuthu
(Head, Dept. of Tamil, U. of Kerala, Trivandram).

N. Ganesan

PS: Raveen is correct that Kuru and Karave (< tamil 'karai'
meaning shore) are unrelated. The MBh. Kuru can be
compared with tamil 'ko_lu' = plough, u_lavar = farmers,
and k -> z change in the IVC noted by Witzel leads the Punjabi
name Shourie (as in Arun Shourie) to be linked
with Drav. "ko_lu".

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