Claude Setzer cssetzer at MUM.EDU
Wed Dec 20 19:47:49 UTC 2000

I am not sure if this is what you are asking, but there is one thing used
very extensively, that is a small circle superscript that indicates a word
(assumed known by the reader) precedes the following text. Monier Williams
and Kane's History of Dharma Shastra also use codes/abbreviations
extensively, and you can find them listed there.

There are also "key" technical words used in virtually every branch of
literature that have specific unique meanings for that piece of literature,
just as you find in technical literature in English. Perhaps one of the
basic misinterpretations of Sanskrit is that it is almost ALL "technical"
literature referring to specific things assumed known by the reader. This is
quite different than a more "spoken" type of language that has extensive
literature like newspapers and novels where there is kind of "general"
vocabulary that almost everyone knows.

Claude Setzer cssetzer at

----- Original Message -----
From: "leona anderson" <leona.anderson at UREGINA.CA>
Sent: Wednesday, December 20, 2000 3:29 PM
Subject: codes

> I am doing some research on the use of codes in the Indian
> subcontinent and would appreciate any information on
> codes/cryptography/ciphers,  etc as found in Sanskrit literature.
> many thanks, leona anderson

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