Horses (China)

Paul K. Manansala kabalen at MAIL.JPS.NET
Tue May 12 20:26:54 UTC 1998

   Wolfgang Behr <w.behr at EM.UNI-FRANKFURT.DE>

> At 08:37 11.05.98 -800, Paul Kekai Manansala wrote:
> | Some studies on crania in Xinkiang have followed the same
> | erroneous path as the interpretation of the Kennewick remains.
> | That is, they have interpreted anything that doesn't fit into
> | typical northeast Mongoloid as "Caucasoid" or "Pre-Caucasoid."
> | Most of the remains associated with Xinkiang and also the Siberian
> | "Caucasoids" are related to modern Southern Mongoloid/Pacific
> | types that once were very common in Northeast and Central Asia.
> Would you please be so kind as to provide some references for these
> claims? In the series of craniometric studies published by the
> physical anthropologist Han Kangxin during the late 80ies and early
> 90ies by  (cf. Xinjiang Shehui Kexue, 6 [1985]: 61-71; Kaogu Xuebao 3
> [1990}: 371-390; Xiyu Yanjiu 2 [1992]: 3-23; Wenwu Tiandi 5[1992]:
> 44-47; see also his book on the subject: _Sichouzhilu gudai jumin
> zhongzu renleixue yanjiu_, Wulumuqi: Xinjiang Renmin [1994]) there
> are quite detailed comparisons with _Southern_ Mongoloid types, but
> they are found definitely _not_ to be related with the Xinjiang mummies
> (see esp. 1990 388 seq.). Even the more balanced study of seven skulls
> from Xinjiang and Qinghai by Djuric-Srejic & Nikolic ("Odlike lobanja
> drevnih skeleta is provincije Sin-Jang u Kini" ["Characteristics of
> skulls of ancient skeletons from the province of Xinjiang in China"],
> Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo 124 [1996] 5-6: 124-9) found that

I'm aware of the last article, and the analysis of the author is
simply Kennewick-style mishmash.  For those unfamiliar with
Kennewick, it involves claims by certain anthropologists that crania
found in the Northwest U.S. are "Pre-Caucasoid." The arguments they
use are easily refuted.  For example, Chatters suggests that the
Sundadont dental type of Kennewick Man is suggestive of ancient
Caucasoid. However, any familiar with the topic knows that the term
"Sundadont" was originally constructed to describe Southern Mongoloid
dentition.  You find other scholars also using this Sundadont pattern
now to suggest ancient Siberians were "Pre-Caucasoid."

>         (a)  "among the studied skulls there was no case showing
>               Mongoloid characteristics"

He is referring only to "typical Mongoloid" features, and even here
he is incorrect.  The skulls do show features like prognathism and
broad nasal bones which are "Mongoloid" characteristics

>         (d)  one of the allegedly "European" type skulls showed
>              East Mediterranean (rather than Northern European)
>              characteristics

Not really.  The suggestion is that they show "Primitive Caucasoid"
characteristics.  For example, a steep mandible is somehow mentioned
as a "Caucasoid" characteristic.  However, steep mandibles hardly a
modern typical feature of Caucasoids.  They are very common among
some contemporary and modern Southeast Asian/Pacific populations.
Another error is claiming palatine torus is a "Caucasoid"
characteristic.  The highest rates of palatine torus occur among
Eskimos and Polynesians.

> In any case, if you find physical anthropological data problematic (which
> they certainly are in many respects), what are you going to do about the
> DNA analysis by Francalacci (J. of Indo-European Studies 23 [1995]: 385-
> 398) who concludes that "the sequence amplified from the ancient Xinjiang
> corpse is more likely related to continental European lineages"?

There are about 100 mummies and many other remains.  There is also
abundant genetic evidence that modern and ancient residents of
Xinkiang are closely related to East Asian types.   Here are a few to
look over:

  AUTHOR:  Mizuki M; Ohno S; Ando H; Sato T; Imanishi T; Gojobori T;
|                Ishihara M; Ota M; Geng Z; Geng L; Li G; Kimura M; Inoko H
|      ADDRESS:  Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School
|                of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
|        TITLE:  Major histocompatibility complex class II alleles in Kazak
|                and Han populations in the Silk Route of northwestern China.
|       SOURCE:  Tissue Antigens (VSV), 1997 Nov; 50 (5): 527-34

 AUTHOR:  Li HJ; Liu DX; Li L; Liu ZG; Qing F; Lo SL; Kang QS; Chen J;
|                Chang YQ; Xie DS; et al
|        TITLE:  Hemoglobinopathies in Xinjiang.
|       SOURCE:  Hemoglobin (G57), 1986; 10 (4): 435-49

However, I need  to warn that there are many problems with bias in genetic studies
There is a distinct racial element in all these studies that cannot
be ignored.  The roots are old and more submerged now, but they still
certainly exist. The Kennewick conflict is just one very prominent
sign of this problem.

I've pasted two abstracts relating to Sundadonty and palatine torus
that will clear us some of these mispresentations of "Caucasoid"

----from Medline---

AUTHOR:       Haydenblit R
|      ADDRESS:  Department of Biological Anthropology, University of
|                Cambridge, United Kingdom.
|        TITLE:  Dental variation among four prehispanic Mexican populations.
|       SOURCE:  Am J Phys Anthropol (3T0), 1996 Jun; 100 (2): 225-46
|     LANGUAGE:  English
 ABSTRACT:       In this paper, the dental morphology of prehispanic Meso-
|                american populations is described, compared, and examined
|                within the context of New World dental variation. Twenty-
|                eight morphological dental traits were studied and compared
|                in four samples of prehispanic Mexican populations. After
|                eliminating intra- and interobserver error, the dental
|                morphological characteristics observed show evidence of
|                heterogeneity among the populations. In particular, the
|                oldest population, Tlatilco (1300-800 BC), was significantly
|                different from the other three groups, Cuicuilco (800-100
|                BC), Monte Alban (500 BC-700 AD) and Cholula (550-750 AD).
|                When the four samples were compared to other Mongoloid
|                populations, either univariately or multivariately, it was
|                observed that the Mexican groups did not follow a strict
|                Sinodont (characteristic of Northeast Asia)/Sundadont
|                (characteristic of Southeast Asia) classification (Turner
|                [1979] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 51:619-636). From the traits
|                examined, 27% presented frequencies consistent with Sinodont
                 variation, while 73% of the traits showed similar incidence
|                to Southeast Asian groups. Multivariately, the Mexican
|                populations were found to fit an overall Sundadont
|                classification. These results indicate that there is more
|                dental morphological variation among American Indian
|                populations than previously shown.

 AUTHOR:  Reichart PA; Neuhaus F; Sookasem M
|      ADDRESS:  Department of Oral Surgery (North), Free University of
|                Berlin, West Germany.
|        TITLE:  Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in
|                Germans and Thai.
|       SOURCE:  Community Dent Oral Epidemiol (DNF), 1988 Feb; 16 (1): 61-4
|     LANGUAGE:  English

|     ABSTRACT:  Torus palatinus (TP) was recorded in 13.5% of 1317 German
|                patients (606 men, 711 women). There was no statistically
|                significant difference between the sexes. Torus palatinus
|                was found in 23.1% of 947 Thai (404 men, 543 women). The
|                difference between the sexes was significant (P less than
|                0.001); women were affected in 28.5%, men showed a TP in
|                15.8%. The differences in prevalence rates between Germans
|                and Thai was also statistically significant (P less
|                0.001). Torus mandibularis (TM) was recorded in 5.2% of the
|                German patients with 8.6% of the men and 2.4% of the women
|                being affected (P less than 0.001). In the Thai, 9.4% of the
|                men and 9% of the women showed TM. The difference between
|                the prevalence rates in Germans and Thai was significant (P
|                less than 0.001). While generally milder forms of tori were
|                observed in German patients, marked forms of TM were also
|                seen in this group. While the etiology of TP and TM is still
|                no quite clear, racial factors must definitely be

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