Chola memorial temples

Tue May 12 00:58:50 UTC 1998

Earlier, I gave a reference on Prithvigangaraiyar, Chieftain of the
Pallava Vijaya Kampavarman, erecting a PaLLippaDai temple.

Here are three more attested funerary temples. One is to
Queen Panchavan Maadevi, wife of Rajaraja I.

On Pasupatas, Indira Peterson referred me to Charles D. Collins
book on Elephanta (SUNY). The entire temple is built as
Mount Kailas, Ravana is shaking it at the bottom. Parvati
looks for the help of Siv, .... More in Nagaswamy's Tantric ciults
in South India, also D. Lorenzen's work.

The link to SEA's Devaraja cult is intriguing.
Once, heard that Ms. Tamara Hudec or someone is doing a PhD
on relations between S. India and South east Asia at U. of Penn.
Was it completed? Very keen to know any PhD theses or books exploring
the relations between South India and south east Asia.
Many thanks for any references.

Eager to read on the inscription of the Kadamba king who killed himself
on behalf of his pet parrot.

N. Ganesan


Panchavan Maadevi Isvaram

S. R. Balasubrahmanyam, Middle Chola temples, Thompson press, 1975

p. 269
Ramanathankoil is about 2 KM southwest of Pattisvaram. Pattisvaram,
Ramanathan koil, PalaiyaaRai, TiruccattimuRRam, and Darasuram were
important Chola centers lying close to one another, having formed
an integral part of the ancient secondary Chola capital of Palaiyaarai.
It is referred to in a record of Kundavai PiraaTTiyaar (ARE 639 of 1909)
as the royal home of her nephew Rajendra I.

p. 270
An inscription of the seventh year of Rajendra I (ARE 271 of 1927)
found here, mentions a gift of land for worship and offerings, by
the king and a queen of his (NampiraaTTiyaar) made to the "Mahadevar
of Panchavan Maadevi Isvaran, built as a paLLiPPaDai at Palaiyaarai
alias Mudikonda Cholapuram". Provisons ae made for offerings on the
days of Tiruvaadirai, the natal star of Rajendra I, and Revati,
stated there to be that of the (unnamed) queen.

[... Two paras to establish which Panchavan Maadevi's temple is this]

In view of the many acts of devotion attributed to Queen Panchavan
Maadevi of Rajaraja I, it is highly probable that the paLLiPPaDai
temple was erected over her mortal remains (though Uttama Chola and
Rajendra I had queens of the same name). Though there is no foundation
inscription revealing its date or builder, it likely that it was
erected by Rajendra I himself in homage to the saintly character of his step

In any event, this temple is unique as the only pallippaDai known
to be erected in honor of a QUEEN.

The above inscription makes mention of a mathadhipati Lakulisvara Pandita
who supervised the affairs of the temple.. We will see while discussing
Tiruvorriyur, the hold which the Lakulisa and soma Siddhanta cults
had over the Cholas in general, and over Rajendra I in particular.

p. 307
The Cholas of the Middle and Later periods seem to have been
deeply interested in the Saiva cult called Lakulisa cult.
it is likely that Tiruvorriyur was a strong center of this
cult during these periods, and that this shrine is dedicated to
Lakulisa (corrupted in course of time into Gaulisa).

Rajadhiraja II is said to have attended a festival in the shrine; two
gurus, Chaturaanana Pandita and Vagisvara Pandita were also
present on the occasion, and the latter expounded the Soma Siddhanta
 (the philosophy of the Kapalika sect of Saivism) in the royal
presence; later all the three listened to a discourse on the
life of Sundaramurti Nayanar (Aludaiya Nambi).

2) S. R. Balsubrahmanyam, Early Chola temples, Orient Longman, 1971
"Melpadi is situated 6 miles north of Tiruvallam on the
Western bank of Niva river. It occupies an important strategic
position in respect of the northern border of the Chola

p. 214
"Further, this temple is mentioned as the northern boundary of the
new temple of Arinjihai Isvarattu Mahadevar established by
Rajaraja I sometime before his 29th year (A.D. 1014) as a
paLLippaDai (memorial sepulchral temple) built at the place
where the mortal remains of Arinjihai devar were buried
(86 of 1889 and SII, v.3, no17). Here is the relevant extract:
'Sri kO Rajaraja Rajakesari varmaraana  Sri Rajaraja Devarkku
yaaNDu (20) 9-vatu JayamkoNDa Chola maNDalattup
perumbaaNappaaDi tuu naatTu MElpaaDiyaana Rajasraya purattu
Arruurt tuJcina  devarkkup paLLippadaiyaaha Udaiyaar
Sri rajarajadevar eDuppittaruLina Tiruvarinjihai iisvarattu
Mahadevarkku ...'

Arinjaya was the grandfather of Rajaraja I and a contemporary
record pays him a great tribute as one 'who possessed keen
intelligence, who was the beloved of the Goddess of Wealth, who was the
God of Death to his enemies and whose greatness was accompanied
by virtuous character and good qualities'".

"It may be of interest to mention that in the days of Rajendra I
its management was in the hands of Lakulisa Pandita, the head of the
mutt of the Saivas of the Pasupata sect."

3) S. R. Balsubrahmanyam, Early Chola temples, Orient Longman, 1971
p. 101,
"TondaimaanaaD is about 6 miles from Kalahasti.
It was formerly called Tondaimaan Arruur (or Peraarruur) in
AaRRuurnaaDu, a division of TiruvEGkaTak kOTTam in Tondainaadu.
Here is a temple called KodandarAmEsvaram or Adityesvaram. This
is said to be a PallippaDai temple, a tomb temple
erected in honor of Kodandaraamanalias Aditya I. At Tirumalpuram
there is an inscription of the 14th year and 211th day of a
KOnErinmai koNDaan (230 of 1903, SII, v.3, no. 142) which
should be asccribed to Uttama Chola and which mentions an earlier
gift of the 21st year of 'Tondaimaan aaRRuurt tunjiya uDaiyaar'
(he who died at Tondaimaan Arruur) ie., Aditya I."

" Pallippadai Vagisvara Pandita Bhattaarar Sri Kodandaraamesvaram aahiya
Adityesvarattu .."

"for the celebration of a seven-day long festival lasting from
the asterism of kETTai to that of catayam (this being the natal star
of the king) in the month of puraTTaaci for feeding on all seven
days of the festival, a thousand persons, tapasvins of all sects
including Mahavratins, brahmins and devotees of various classes.
It is of special interest that this inscription mentions among
other items the time-honored celebration of the Indra festival
so graphically described in the tamil epics, Silappatikaaram and
Manimekhalai... The sabha and nagaram of Tondaimaan
PeraaRRuur agreed to maintain this charity in favour of the
Pallippadai Vagisvara Pandita Bhattarar temple, as requested by
the Mahavratins of Adityesvaram, the ka.nap perumakka.l of
Panriisvarattu Prithivi Vitangar temple and the Panmahesvaras
(SII, v. 7, no. 529)

Thus we conclude that this is a temple named after Aditya I,
being in fact a pallippadai, built over the mortal remains
of this king who died in this place. It was built by
Parantaka I sometime before his 34th year as a tangible expression
of the filial piety of a dutiful son"


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