Q. Lokayata texts

Wed Feb 25 22:30:53 UTC 1998

Dmitry Olenev wrote:
> Could you give me more detailed information about the manuscript?
>Was it published? Does there exist traslation of this text into any
>european language?

The Tamil lokayata text is published. In 1995, edited by
S. Soundarapandian at Govt. Oriental Mss. Library, Madras.
I must say that this edition contains many errors.
Only the mss. at GOML is consulted, and NOT the one
at Perur Adheenam. If both were seen together, the edition
would have been much better. In general, the Govt. editions from
GOML really are not upto high standards.

For a long time, it is known that Kavichakravarti JayamkoNTaar
wrote a vaLamaTal, known as kArAn2ai vizupparaiyan2 maTal.
This is it. From this text, we can ascertain the birthplace of JayamkoNTaar
who served in the court of Kulottunga Chola I. (1070-1120 AD)
JayamkoNTaar composed this poem on behalf of his
patron, Adhinaatan. The patron belonged to the family
of Vizupparaiyar from the village of kArAn2ai.
JayamkoNTaar hails from Deepangudi. Both kArAn2ai and
Deppangudi are near Dindivanam in South Arcot district.
Vizupparaiyar served Cholas as officials.
JayamkoNTaar seems to have written this work in his
early years, later introduced to the Chola King by
Adhinaatan and composed the famous Kalingattup paraNi.

There are only four vaLamaTals in tamil.
Two tirumaTals by Tirumangai Alvar, vaLamaTal by
JayamkoNTaar, kalimaTal by TattuvarAyar.
In Alvar's maTals and kalimaTal, the male poet
assumes the persona of a girl and pines to win
love from Krishna, Narayana, Guru respectively.
Being a Lokayata text, JayamkoNTar's work
is the statement from a male and how 'kAmam'
is a worthwhile pursuit. In the tamil interior
landscape poetry convention (akam poetry),
the lover's name should never be mentioned
and girls' should not ride maTal, a mock-horse
out of palmyrah blades. Only JayamkoNTaar
maintains the ancient tradition.
Both Tirumangai Alvar and TattuvarAyar
(one of the first to write Advaita philosophy in tamil, 16th century)
mention their lover's names, -Krishna, Narayana, Guru SvarUpAnanadar -
for reasons of bhakti.

These four vaLamaTals are the only texts in tamil
that have the same etukai/prAsam throughout.
In poetic beauty, JayamkoNTar wins all the other
three works.

Unfortunately, this vaLamaTal is not known
widely yet. So, no translations exist.

By the way, what century does tattvopaplavasi.mha belong to?

N. Ganesan

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