Khotanese dviilai and traviilai

Dan Lusthaus dlusthau at
Thu Jan 9 21:03:54 UTC 1997

>The following lines are placed in the list on behalf of Prof. Emmerick.
>Michael Pahlke
>In Khotanese texts Buddhist Aacaaryas sometimes are given the titles
>dviilai or
>traviilai, meaning "Knower of two pit.akas" and "Knower of three
>pit.akas". Does
>anyone know what precisely lies behind these titles? Are they known from
>sources? I would be grateful for any suggestions.
>Ronald E. Emmerick

Chinese texts often refer to Buddhist teachers as tsang-shih (zangshi, for
the pinyiners), (tri-)pitaka master. Other types of titles are fa-shih,
Dharma-masters; sha-men (Shaman, early on used for Buddhist monks), etc. I
don't know the origin of these terms, except that they were used regularly
by the 4th century. Occasionally the full san-tsang-shih (tripitaka master)
is used.

Dan Lusthaus
Flordia State University

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