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Tamil tombstones inscriptions

BM
Bill Mak
Tue, Feb 23, 2021 4:28 AM

Dear friends,
I am helping the local Hindu Association to catalogue some 19th century tombstones here in Hong Kong. I wonder if someone could help me to transcribe the Tamil inscription and to direct me to some resources on the practice of tombstone inscription in Tamil. I include some photos here. Please contact me either on or off list.
Many thanks,
Bill Mak

Dear friends, I am helping the local Hindu Association to catalogue some 19th century tombstones here in Hong Kong. I wonder if someone could help me to transcribe the Tamil inscription and to direct me to some resources on the practice of tombstone inscription in Tamil. I include some photos here. Please contact me either on or off list. Many thanks, Bill Mak
MF
Manu Francis
Tue, Feb 23, 2021 1:16 PM

Hi Bill,

Thanks for this interesting material!

I am willing to contribute ... if time permits ;-)

Could you share more (and higher-resolution) pictures?

Here is my quick reading and translation of one of these (“image3”).

(1) {piḷḷaiyār cūḻi}

(2) civalōkam· –

(3) pōṇavar·kaḷ· A-

(4) ṭaiyāḷam· –

(5) mut·tiyaṉ· Iraṇ- –

(6) ṭāvatu kumāṟaṉ

(7) cantirappiḷḷai –

(8) yeṟanta nāḷ …

(9) …

Sign/mark [of/for] one who has gone [to]/ reached the Śivalōka.

The day when Cantirappiḷḷai, the son of Muttiyaṉ the second, died (yeṟanta,
i.e. iṟanta) [is] … [the date appears to be stated in lines 8-9, which I am
unable to read.]

As for references, you could check

Cotton, Julian James. List of Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments in Madras:
Possessing

Historical or Archaeological Interest. 2 vols. Edited by B. S. Baliga.
Madras: Government

Press, 1946. [available, I think, on internet archives]

Here are some pictures of late-20th/21st-century epitaphs, dating back to
the good old days when fieldwork in India was possible. These were taken at
the entrance of an Aiyanar temple in Pudukkottai district, between Kīraṉūr
and Virālimalai:

https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qky65bxbtg5ex8b/AADuTv5N2cXPZ8UDg6-CGTUEa?dl=0

Maybe knowledgeable colleagues in this list might enlighten me on this
practice.

With very best wishes.

Manu

Emmanuel FRANCIS http://ceias.ehess.fr/index.php?1725
Chargé de recherche CNRS, Centre d'études de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud
http://ceias.ehess.fr/ (UMR 8564, EHESS-CNRS, Paris)
Online CV HAL https://cv.archives-ouvertes.fr/emmanuel-francis
DHARMA https://dharma.hypotheses.org/ Project
https://dharma.hypotheses.org/ (ERC synergy grant 2018)
TST Project https://tst.hypotheses.org/ (FRAL 2018, ANR & DFG)
Regionalism & Cosmopolitism: South India http://rcsi.hypotheses.org/
Associate member, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Culture
http://www.manuscript-cultures.uni-hamburg.de/index_e.html

Le mar. 23 févr. 2021 à 05:29, Bill Mak bill.m.mak@gmail.com a écrit :

Dear friends,
I am helping the local Hindu Association to catalogue some 19th century
tombstones here in Hong Kong. I wonder if someone could help me to
transcribe the Tamil inscription and to direct me to some resources on the
practice of tombstone inscription in Tamil. I include some photos here.
Please contact me either on or off list.
Many thanks,
Bill Mak


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unsubscribe)

Hi Bill, Thanks for this interesting material! I am willing to contribute ... if time permits ;-) Could you share more (and higher-resolution) pictures? Here is my quick reading and translation of one of these (“image3”). (1) {piḷḷaiyār cūḻi} (2) civalōkam· – (3) pōṇavar·kaḷ· A- (4) ṭaiyāḷam· – (5) mut·tiyaṉ· Iraṇ- – (6) ṭāvatu kumāṟaṉ (7) cantirappiḷḷai – (8) yeṟanta nāḷ … (9) … Sign/mark [of/for] one who has gone [to]/ reached the Śivalōka. The day when Cantirappiḷḷai, the son of Muttiyaṉ the second, died (yeṟanta, i.e. iṟanta) [is] … [the date appears to be stated in lines 8-9, which I am unable to read.] As for references, you could check Cotton, Julian James. List of Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments in Madras: Possessing Historical or Archaeological Interest. 2 vols. Edited by B. S. Baliga. Madras: Government Press, 1946. [available, I think, on internet archives] Here are some pictures of late-20th/21st-century epitaphs, dating back to the good old days when fieldwork in India was possible. These were taken at the entrance of an Aiyanar temple in Pudukkottai district, between Kīraṉūr and Virālimalai: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qky65bxbtg5ex8b/AADuTv5N2cXPZ8UDg6-CGTUEa?dl=0 Maybe knowledgeable colleagues in this list might enlighten me on this practice. With very best wishes. Manu Emmanuel FRANCIS <http://ceias.ehess.fr/index.php?1725> Chargé de recherche CNRS, Centre d'études de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud <http://ceias.ehess.fr/> (UMR 8564, EHESS-CNRS, Paris) Online CV HAL <https://cv.archives-ouvertes.fr/emmanuel-francis> DHARMA <https://dharma.hypotheses.org/> Project <https://dharma.hypotheses.org/> (ERC synergy grant 2018) TST Project <https://tst.hypotheses.org/> (FRAL 2018, ANR & DFG) Regionalism & Cosmopolitism: South India <http://rcsi.hypotheses.org/> Associate member, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Culture <http://www.manuscript-cultures.uni-hamburg.de/index_e.html> Le mar. 23 févr. 2021 à 05:29, Bill Mak <bill.m.mak@gmail.com> a écrit : > Dear friends, > I am helping the local Hindu Association to catalogue some 19th century > tombstones here in Hong Kong. I wonder if someone could help me to > transcribe the Tamil inscription and to direct me to some resources on the > practice of tombstone inscription in Tamil. I include some photos here. > Please contact me either on or off list. > Many thanks, > Bill Mak > > _______________________________________________ > INDOLOGY mailing list -- indology@list.indology.info > To unsubscribe send an email to indology-leave@list.indology.info > indology-owner@list.indology.info (messages to the list's managing > committee) > http://listinfo.indology.info (where you can change your list options or > unsubscribe)
BM
Bill Mak
Wed, Feb 24, 2021 12:36 PM

Many thanks to Manu and also others who replied offline. I can now compare the Tamil inscriptions with the English version as well as the content of other tombstones. What interested me initially was why the tombstones are there on the ground of a Hindu Temple in the first place. Some of the suggestions include: infant burials, military cenotaphs, memorials for wealthy family, lingayat followers who are considered Hindus but do not cremate their bodies, non-Hindu spouses and children, etc.

--
Bill M. Mak

Needham Research Institute
8 Sylvester Road
Cambridge, CB3 9AF
United Kingdom

Robinson College
Cambridge University
Grange Road, Cambridge, CB3 9AN
United Kingdom

Tel:+44-1223768229

http://www.billmak.com http://www.billmak.com/
https://needham.academia.edu/BillMak

On 23 Feb 2021, at 21:16, Manu Francis manufrancis@gmail.com wrote:

Hi Bill,

Thanks for this interesting material!

I am willing to contribute ... if time permits ;-)

Could you share more (and higher-resolution) pictures?

Here is my quick reading and translation of one of these (“image3”).

(1) {piḷḷaiyār cūḻi}

(2) civalōkam· –

(3) pōṇavar·kaḷ· A-

(4) ṭaiyāḷam· –

(5) mut·tiyaṉ· Iraṇ- –

(6) ṭāvatu kumāṟaṉ

(7) cantirappiḷḷai –

(8) yeṟanta nāḷ …

(9) …

Sign/mark [of/for] one who has gone [to]/ reached the Śivalōka.

The day when Cantirappiḷḷai, the son of Muttiyaṉ the second, died (yeṟanta, i.e. iṟanta) [is] … [the date appears to be stated in lines 8-9, which I am unable to read.]

As for references, you could check

Cotton, Julian James. List of Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments in Madras: Possessing

Historical or Archaeological Interest. 2 vols. Edited by B. S. Baliga. Madras: Government

Press, 1946. [available, I think, on internet archives]

Here are some pictures of late-20th/21st-century epitaphs, dating back to the good old days when fieldwork in India was possible. These were taken at the entrance of an Aiyanar temple in Pudukkottai district, between Kīraṉūr and Virālimalai:

https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qky65bxbtg5ex8b/AADuTv5N2cXPZ8UDg6-CGTUEa?dl=0 https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qky65bxbtg5ex8b/AADuTv5N2cXPZ8UDg6-CGTUEa?dl=0
Maybe knowledgeable colleagues in this list might enlighten me on this practice.

With very best wishes.

Manu

Emmanuel FRANCIS http://ceias.ehess.fr/index.php?1725
Chargé de recherche CNRS, Centre d'études de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud http://ceias.ehess.fr/ (UMR 8564, EHESS-CNRS, Paris)
Online CV HAL https://cv.archives-ouvertes.fr/emmanuel-francis
DHARMA https://dharma.hypotheses.org/ Project https://dharma.hypotheses.org/ (ERC synergy grant 2018)
TST Project https://tst.hypotheses.org/ (FRAL 2018, ANR & DFG)
Regionalism & Cosmopolitism: South India http://rcsi.hypotheses.org/
Associate member, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Culture http://www.manuscript-cultures.uni-hamburg.de/index_e.html

Le mar. 23 févr. 2021 à 05:29, Bill Mak <bill.m.mak@gmail.com mailto:bill.m.mak@gmail.com> a écrit :
Dear friends,
I am helping the local Hindu Association to catalogue some 19th century tombstones here in Hong Kong. I wonder if someone could help me to transcribe the Tamil inscription and to direct me to some resources on the practice of tombstone inscription in Tamil. I include some photos here. Please contact me either on or off list.
Many thanks,
Bill Mak


INDOLOGY mailing list -- indology@list.indology.info mailto:indology@list.indology.info
To unsubscribe send an email to indology-leave@list.indology.info mailto:indology-leave@list.indology.info
indology-owner@list.indology.info mailto:indology-owner@list.indology.info (messages to the list's managing committee)
http://listinfo.indology.info http://listinfo.indology.info/ (where you can change your list options or unsubscribe)

Many thanks to Manu and also others who replied offline. I can now compare the Tamil inscriptions with the English version as well as the content of other tombstones. What interested me initially was why the tombstones are there on the ground of a Hindu Temple in the first place. Some of the suggestions include: infant burials, military cenotaphs, memorials for wealthy family, lingayat followers who are considered Hindus but do not cremate their bodies, non-Hindu spouses and children, etc. -- Bill M. Mak Needham Research Institute 8 Sylvester Road Cambridge, CB3 9AF United Kingdom Robinson College Cambridge University Grange Road, Cambridge, CB3 9AN United Kingdom Tel:+44-1223768229 http://www.billmak.com <http://www.billmak.com/> https://needham.academia.edu/BillMak > On 23 Feb 2021, at 21:16, Manu Francis <manufrancis@gmail.com> wrote: > > Hi Bill, > > > > > Thanks for this interesting material! > > I am willing to contribute ... if time permits ;-) > > Could you share more (and higher-resolution) pictures? > > > Here is my quick reading and translation of one of these (“image3”). > > > (1) {piḷḷaiyār cūḻi} > > (2) civalōkam· – > > (3) pōṇavar·kaḷ· A- > > (4) ṭaiyāḷam· – > > (5) mut·tiyaṉ· Iraṇ- – > > (6) ṭāvatu kumāṟaṉ > > (7) cantirappiḷḷai – > > (8) yeṟanta nāḷ … > > (9) … > > > Sign/mark [of/for] one who has gone [to]/ reached the Śivalōka. > > The day when Cantirappiḷḷai, the son of Muttiyaṉ the second, died (yeṟanta, i.e. iṟanta) [is] … [the date appears to be stated in lines 8-9, which I am unable to read.] > > > As for references, you could check > > Cotton, Julian James. List of Inscriptions on Tombs or Monuments in Madras: Possessing > > Historical or Archaeological Interest. 2 vols. Edited by B. S. Baliga. Madras: Government > > Press, 1946. [available, I think, on internet archives] > > > Here are some pictures of late-20th/21st-century epitaphs, dating back to the good old days when fieldwork in India was possible. These were taken at the entrance of an Aiyanar temple in Pudukkottai district, between Kīraṉūr and Virālimalai: > > https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qky65bxbtg5ex8b/AADuTv5N2cXPZ8UDg6-CGTUEa?dl=0 <https://www.dropbox.com/sh/qky65bxbtg5ex8b/AADuTv5N2cXPZ8UDg6-CGTUEa?dl=0> > Maybe knowledgeable colleagues in this list might enlighten me on this practice. > > > With very best wishes. > > > Manu > > > > Emmanuel FRANCIS <http://ceias.ehess.fr/index.php?1725> > Chargé de recherche CNRS, Centre d'études de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud <http://ceias.ehess.fr/> (UMR 8564, EHESS-CNRS, Paris) > Online CV HAL <https://cv.archives-ouvertes.fr/emmanuel-francis> > DHARMA <https://dharma.hypotheses.org/> Project <https://dharma.hypotheses.org/> (ERC synergy grant 2018) > TST Project <https://tst.hypotheses.org/> (FRAL 2018, ANR & DFG) > Regionalism & Cosmopolitism: South India <http://rcsi.hypotheses.org/> > Associate member, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Culture <http://www.manuscript-cultures.uni-hamburg.de/index_e.html> > > > Le mar. 23 févr. 2021 à 05:29, Bill Mak <bill.m.mak@gmail.com <mailto:bill.m.mak@gmail.com>> a écrit : > Dear friends, > I am helping the local Hindu Association to catalogue some 19th century tombstones here in Hong Kong. I wonder if someone could help me to transcribe the Tamil inscription and to direct me to some resources on the practice of tombstone inscription in Tamil. I include some photos here. Please contact me either on or off list. > Many thanks, > Bill Mak > > _______________________________________________ > INDOLOGY mailing list -- indology@list.indology.info <mailto:indology@list.indology.info> > To unsubscribe send an email to indology-leave@list.indology.info <mailto:indology-leave@list.indology.info> > indology-owner@list.indology.info <mailto:indology-owner@list.indology.info> (messages to the list's managing committee) > http://listinfo.indology.info <http://listinfo.indology.info/> (where you can change your list options or unsubscribe)