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    <p>Dear colleagues, <br>
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    <p>yes, it does become more complicated, and this is the reason why
      Germany and several other countries have special copyright laws
      for scientific text editions. <br>
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    <p><br>
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    <p>In most countries, copyright does not depend on a specific
      formula or even the presence of a © symbol but, first of all, on
      the author. The rights of an author expire after a certain period
      (60, 70, 75 or more years) after the death of the (last) author
      or, in the case of scientific editions in several European
      countries, after 25 or 30 years after the first publication. So
      BORI could, in any case, only claim the copyright for a certain
      time (I don't know when the last author of the edition died) and
      in certain countries. The same applies to the NT editions
      mentioned by Richard Mahoney, which both mention their "authors"
      (who of course are, philologically speaking, editors).  <br>
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    <p><br>
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    <p>So legally, it all depends on authorship. For all I know, the
      editors of critical editions are authors, even though the base
      texts are public domain: even if you think of critical editions
      only as compilations, they can, in my view, be copyrighted,
      because they involve the creative selection and rearrangement of
      preexisting material. Of course, they are not supposed to be
      "new," but how could you prove (in court) that they are not, as
      long as the archetype is not found? I would argue that this
      applies regardless of what Sukthankar or any other authority says.
      In the eyes of the world, they are new texts, created by peope who
      are legally authors. At least in Austria, you cannot even get rid
      of authorship that easily – it is attributed to you if it is clear
      that you are the author, whether you claim it or not. And with
      this comes and goes the copyright. <br>
      <br>
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    <p> Best regards, <br>
      Dominik A. Haas </p>
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                                  __________________</font></span></div>
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                                color:rgb(128,128,128); font-size:9px"><b>Dominik
                                  A. Haas, BA MA</b> <br>
                                PhD student, University of Vienna<br>
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    <div class="moz-cite-prefix">Am 01.10.2019 um 11:55 schrieb Simon
      Brodbeck via INDOLOGY:<br>
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cite="mid:AM7PR02MB579717AC44450DB9DE0CE5A78C9D0@AM7PR02MB5797.eurprd02.prod.outlook.com">
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      Dear colleagues,
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            I wonder if the matter might be complicated, at least in
            principle, by the idea that the Mahabharata as critically
            reconstituted by the editors is an approximation of a text
            that was produced many centuries earlier? Reading
            Sukthankar's "Prolegomena" one has the impression that his
            claim was not to have created a new text, but to have
            recreated an old one. Although there may be different views
            on whether or not that claim was justified, it might seem
            somewhat contradictory for Sukthankar or BORI to claim
            copyright on the published reconstituted text. And if so,
            wouldn't the situation be similar for any number of
            explicitly reconstructive editions?</div>
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            Yours,</div>
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            Simon Brodbeck</div>
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            Cardiff University<br>
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            <div id="divRplyFwdMsg" dir="ltr"><font
                style="font-size:11pt" face="Calibri, sans-serif"
                color="#000000"><b>From:</b> INDOLOGY
                <a class="moz-txt-link-rfc2396E" href="mailto:indology-bounces@list.indology.info"><indology-bounces@list.indology.info></a> on behalf of
                Dominik Haas via INDOLOGY
                <a class="moz-txt-link-rfc2396E" href="mailto:indology@list.indology.info"><indology@list.indology.info></a><br>
                <b>Sent:</b> 01 October 2019 09:45<br>
                <b>To:</b> <a class="moz-txt-link-abbreviated" href="mailto:indology@list.indology.info">indology@list.indology.info</a>
                <a class="moz-txt-link-rfc2396E" href="mailto:indology@list.indology.info"><indology@list.indology.info></a><br>
                <b>Subject:</b> Re: [INDOLOGY] Highlights from the
                Sanskrit corpora</font>
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              <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;">Dear
                Jonathan and Dominik, <br>
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              <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;">I just had
                the very same thoughts. I'm not an expert of law either,
                but
                <span style="background-color:rgb(255,255,0)">technically
                  speaking, the BORI Mahâbhârata is not simply an
                  edition, but a new text created by its editors between
                  1919 and 1966</span>. The editors are, in this case,
                actually authors, who obviously transferred their
                copyright to the still existing BORI. So unless an
                ancient and complete manuscript appears which contains
                the very same text as the BORI Mahâbhârata (very
                unlikely, I would say), the BORI holds the copyright of
                its text. According to German law (mentioned by
                Dominik), however, it does not – 25 years have long gone
                past since the publication of the original edition. The
                co-owned copyright of Prof. Tokunaga (1994), too, would
                expire this year – in Germany.
                <br>
              </p>
              <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;">Of course,
                authors also have the copyright to transcriptions of
                their text – just imagine someone would transcribe a
                talk you give and then publish it as their own text. I
                would argue that creating an electronic transcription of
                a (copyrighted) Devanâgarî text isn't much different. <br>
              </p>
              <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;">Best
                regards, <br>
              </p>
              <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;">Dominik A.
                Haas</p>
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