<div dir="ltr">Other examples may be Satī burning herself at the sacrifice of her father Dakṣa, where her husband was insulted, and of Ambā burning hurself after being rejected for marriage by Bhīṣma in the Mahabharata.<div><br></div><div>Madhav Deshpande</div></div><div class="gmail_extra"><br><div class="gmail_quote">On Mon, Jun 6, 2016 at 6:32 AM, Michaels, Axel <span dir="ltr"><<a href="mailto:michaels@asia-europe.uni-heidelberg.de" target="_blank">michaels@asia-europe.uni-heidelberg.de</a>></span> wrote:<br><blockquote class="gmail_quote" style="margin:0 0 0 .8ex;border-left:1px #ccc solid;padding-left:1ex">





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Perhaps this question would also include some cases of suttee. Se for instance Manadeva’s inscription (464 CE) in Cangu Narayan (Nepal):</div>
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<span style="font-size:16px"><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">„</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">With</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">affection</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">and</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">with</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> a
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">tearful</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">face</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">addressed</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (her)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">son</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">: "</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">Your</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">father</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">went</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">to</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">heaven</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">. O (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">my</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">son</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">as</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">your</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">father</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">has</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">gone</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">today</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">what</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">is</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">use</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">my</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">breath</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> [i.e.
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">life</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">]. Take
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">over</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">, o
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">son</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">kingdom</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">! I (will) follow
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">right</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">now</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">path</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">my</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">husband</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">.
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">What</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">use</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">is</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">it</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">for</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">me</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">to</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> live
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">without</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">my</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">husband</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">by</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">chains</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">hope</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">made</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">by</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">extension</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (different)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">kinds</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">pleasures</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">when</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">act</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">meeting</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">is</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> like an
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">illusion</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">and</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> a
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">dream</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">. I will
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">go</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">!"
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">Saying</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> so,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">however</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">remained</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">.
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">Then</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> was
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">addressed</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">by</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> her
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">sorrowful</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">son</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">who</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">had</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">diligently</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">pressed</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> her
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">feet</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">against</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">his</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">head</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> out
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">devotion</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">: "</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">What</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
 (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">to</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> do)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">with</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">pleasure</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">what</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">with</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">joys</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">life</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">when</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">there</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">is</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">seperation</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">from</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">you</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">? I will
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">give</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">up</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">my</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">life</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">first</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">later</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> I will
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">go</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">to</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">heaven</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">from</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">here</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">."
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">With</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">tears</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">coming</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> out
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">from</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> her lotus-like
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">face</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">with</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> a
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">net</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">made</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> out
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">words</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">became</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> like a
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">trapped</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">and</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">tied</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">bird</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">, (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">and</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">therefore</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">remained</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">. After
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">had</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">together</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">with</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> her noble
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">son</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">performed</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> her
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">husband's</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">obsequies</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">lived</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">by</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">rules</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">good</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">conduct</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">chastity</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">fasting</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">and</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">with</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> a
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">totally</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">cleaned</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">mind</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">; (</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">moreover</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">always</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">gave</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">wealth</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">to</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">brahmins</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">to</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">increase</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (her
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">late</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">husband's</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">merit</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">remained</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">with</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">him</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> in her
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">mind</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">,
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">according</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">to</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">rule</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">of</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">the</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri;font-style:italic">sat</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri;font-style:italic">ī</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">vow</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> (so
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">that</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">)
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">she</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">really</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri"> was like
</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">Arundhatī</span><span style="color:rgb(0,0,0);font-family:Calibri">.“ (Trans. Th. </span><font face="Calibri">Riccardi)</font></span></p>
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Axel Michaels</p>
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<span style="font-weight:bold">Von: </span>INDOLOGY <<a href="mailto:indology-bounces@list.indology.info" target="_blank">indology-bounces@list.indology.info</a>> im Auftrag von "<a href="mailto:mmdesh@umich.edu" target="_blank">mmdesh@umich.edu</a>" <<a href="mailto:mmdesh@umich.edu" target="_blank">mmdesh@umich.edu</a>><br>
<span style="font-weight:bold">Datum: </span>Montag, 6. Juni 2016 um 12:24<br>
<span style="font-weight:bold">An: </span>Klaus Karttunen <<a href="mailto:klaus.karttunen@helsinki.fi" target="_blank">klaus.karttunen@helsinki.fi</a>><br>
<span style="font-weight:bold">Cc: </span>"<a href="mailto:indology@list.indology.info" target="_blank">indology@list.indology.info</a>" <<a href="mailto:indology@list.indology.info" target="_blank">indology@list.indology.info</a>><br>
<span style="font-weight:bold">Betreff: </span>Re: [INDOLOGY] suicide as a result of love<br>
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<div dir="ltr">In the Nalopākhyāna (in the Sanskrit Reader, Charles Lanman, p. 9-10) from the Mahabharata, Damayantī threatens to kill herself, if rejected by Nala.  She refers to four alternatives to kill herself:  yadi tvam bhajamānām mām pratyākhyāsyasi
 mānada / viṣam agnim jalam rajjum āsthāsye tava kāraṇāt //, "O, Giver of Honor, if you reject me who is devoted to you, then on account of you, I will resort to poison, or fire, or water, or a rope."  
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<div>Madhav Deshpande</div>
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<div class="gmail_quote">On Mon, Jun 6, 2016 at 5:46 AM, Klaus Karttunen <span dir="ltr">
<<a href="mailto:klaus.karttunen@helsinki.fi" target="_blank">klaus.karttunen@helsinki.fi</a>></span> wrote:<br>
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<div style="word-wrap:break-word">Dear all,
<div>in Harṣa’s Ratnāvalī Sāgarikā – sure that her love to the king is unsuccesful – will hang herself, but luckily the king arrives in time and saves her. There are certainly many other examples.</div>
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<div>Best,</div>
<div>Klaus</div>
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<div><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px">Klaus Karttunen</span></font></div>
<div><span style="color:black"><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px">South Asian and Indoeuropean Studies</span></font></span><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px"></span></font></div>
<div><span style="color:black"><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px">Asian and African Studies, Department of World Cultures</span></font></span><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px"></span></font></div>
<div><span style="color:black"><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px">PL 59 (Unioninkatu 38 B)</span></font></span><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px"></span></font></div>
<div><span style="color:black"><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px">00014 University of Helsinki, FINLAND</span></font></span><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px"></span></font></div>
<div><span style="color:black"><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px">Tel +358-(0)2941 4482418</span></font></span><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px"></span></font></div>
<div><span style="color:black"><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px">Fax +358-(0)2941 22094</span></font></span><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px"></span></font></div>
<div><span style="color:black"><font size="3"><span style="font-size:12px"><a href="mailto:Klaus.Karttunen@helsinki.fi" target="_blank">Klaus.Karttunen@helsinki.fi</a></span></font></span></div>
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<blockquote type="cite">
<div>On 06 Jun 2016, at 11:50, Philipp Maas <<a href="mailto:philipp.a.maas@gmail.com" target="_blank">philipp.a.maas@gmail.com</a>> wrote:</div>
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<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-GB">Dear Dermot and all,</span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-GB">The story of the “Weaver as Viṣṇu” occurs indeed in Pūrnabhadra’s recension of the Patañcatntra as well as in the exemplar of this recension, the so-called
<i>textus simplicior</i>. Pūrnabhadra censored the narrative strongly from the perspective of conservative smārta-Hinduism and left out the motive of suicide out of desire for the princess, which, accordingly only occurs in the
<i>textus simplicior</i>. </span></p>
<div><span lang="EN-GB"> </span><br>
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<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-GB">For a more comprehensive analysis of the two versions of the narrative see my “On Discourses of Dharma and the Pañcatantra.”
</span><i>Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens</i> 55 (2013-2014), p. <span lang="EN-GB">
5-31, of which you find a pre-print draft version <a href="https://www.academia.edu/13986474/On_Discourses_of_Dharma_and_the_Pa%C3%B1catantra" target="_blank">
here</a>.</span></p>
<div><span lang="EN-GB"> </span><br>
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<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-GB">Best wishes,</span></p>
<div><span lang="EN-GB"> </span><br>
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<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-GB">Philipp<br>
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<div class="gmail_quote">2016-06-06 10:09 GMT+02:00 <span dir="ltr"><<a href="mailto:dermot@grevatt.force9.co.uk" target="_blank">dermot@grevatt.force9.co.uk</a>></span>:<br>
<blockquote class="gmail_quote" style="margin:0 0 0 .8ex;border-left:1px #ccc solid;padding-left:1ex">
In Purnabhadra's version of the Pancatantra (ed. Hertel 1908 pp. 46-55; tr. A.W. Ryder 1956,<br>
pp. 89-104), a weaver falls in love with a princess, swoons, then resolves on suicide by fire.<br>
He is saved by his friend, a chariot-builder or carpenter (rathakAra), who promises to use his<br>
skill to effect a union, and is spectacularly successful. It's a wonderful story, involving sex,<br>
politics, and religion.<br>
<br>
This is a mock-heroic example: the motif of suicidal despair resulting from love at first sight,<br>
which is expected of exalted characters, is transferred to a man of low degree.<br>
<br>
Dermot<br>
<br>
On 6 Jun 2016 at 8:51, Andrew Ollett wrote:<br>
<br>
I have the feeling that this is a relatively common motif in story literature. The one example<br>
that comes to mind is the Prakrit verse romance Lilavati, in which one of the characters<br>
(Kuvalayavali) has a "gandharva" wedding with a Gandharva (Citragada), and when her<br>
father finds out and curses them, she is so overcome with shame that she tries to hang<br>
herself from a tree. She is stopped at the last moment by her mother Rambha. This is around<br>
v. 658 in A.N. Upadhye's edition.<br>
<br>
On Mon, Jun 6, 2016 at 8:25 AM, Alex Watson <<a href="mailto:alex.watson@ashoka.edu.in" target="_blank">alex.watson@ashoka.edu.in</a>> wrote:<br>
    Dear List Members<br>
<br>
    A colleague, Madhavi Menon, who is writing a book entitled 'A History of Desire in<br>
    India', has asked me the following question. All help appreciated; I will forward your<br>
    responses to her.<br>
<br>
    "Are there any narratives in Sanskrit/Buddhist literature/philosophy/history that talk<br>
    about suicide, or atma-hatya, specifically in relation to love and desire?"<br>
<br>
    Yours Alex<br>
<br>
    --<br>
    Alex Watson<br>
    Professor of Indian Philosophy<br>
    Ashoka University<br>
    <a href="https://ashokauniversity.academia.edu/AlexWatson" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank">
https://ashokauniversity.academia.edu/AlexWatson</a><br>
<br>
    _______________________________________________<br>
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--<br>
Dermot Killingley<br>
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Gosforth,<br>
Newcastle upon Tyne NE3 1XT<br>
Phone <a href="tel:%280191%29%20285%208053" value="+431912858053" target="_blank">
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</blockquote>
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<br>
-- <br>
<div data-smartmail="gmail_signature">
<div dir="ltr">
<div>
<div>
<div>
<div>Dr. Philipp A. Maas<br>
</div>
Universitätsassistent<br>
</div>
Institut für Südasien-, Tibet- und Buddhismuskunde<br>
Universität Wien<br>
Spitalgasse 2-4, Hof 2, Eingang 2.1<br>
A-1090 Wien<br>
</div>
<div>Österreich<br>
<a href="http://univie.academia.edu/PhilippMaas" target="_blank">univie.academia.edu/PhilippMaas</a><br>
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-- <br>
<div data-smartmail="gmail_signature">Madhav M. Deshpande<br>
Professor of Sanskrit and Linguistics<br>
Department of Asian Languages and Cultures<br>
202 South Thayer Street, Suite 6111<br>
The University of Michigan<br>
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1608, USA<br>
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<a href="http://listinfo.indology.info" rel="noreferrer" target="_blank">http://listinfo.indology.info</a> (where you can change your list options or unsubscribe)<br></blockquote></div><br><br clear="all"><div><br></div>-- <br><div class="gmail_signature" data-smartmail="gmail_signature">Madhav M. Deshpande<br>Professor of Sanskrit and Linguistics<br>Department of Asian Languages and Cultures<br>202 South Thayer Street, Suite 6111<br>The University of Michigan<br>Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1608, USA<br></div>
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