[INDOLOGY] satya

Madhav Deshpande mmdesh at umich.edu
Tue Oct 4 15:32:59 EDT 2016


Dear Patrick,

     You have pointed to the probable source for the etymology offered by
Śākaṭāyana.  "Sad gamaya" perfectly points to "sat + causative of i".

Madhav

On Tue, Oct 4, 2016 at 3:29 PM, Olivelle, J P <jpo at austin.utexas.edu> wrote:

> This is quite interesting, Madhav. Even though Yāska may not attach a
> meaning to the two roots from which Śākaṭāyana derives the word “sat-ya”, I
> wonder whether there was a tradition of find a meaning in the term of
> “taking someone to sat”. I was reminded of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
> (1.3.28) statement: asato mā sad gamaya, the latter being a causative of
> √gam, which is a synonym of √i.
>
> Patrick
>
>
>
>
> On Oct 4, 2016, at 2:09 PM, Madhav Deshpande <mmdesh at umich.edu> wrote:
>
> Just for additional information, perhaps the oldest etymology for the word
> satya was offered by a grammarian named Śākaṭāyana.  This is referred to by
> Yāska in his Nirukta [1.13, 1.14], where we are told that Śākaṭāyana
> derived parts of a word from other words [padebhyaḥ padetarārdhān
> saṃcaskāra śākaṭāyanaḥ].  Śākaṭāyana derives the "ya" of satya from the
> causative of the root "i" [eteḥ kāritaṃ ca yakārādiṃ ca antakaraṇam], while
> he derives the "sat" of satya from the root "as" [asteḥ śuddhaṃ sakārādiṃ
> ca].  It is not entirely clear what meaning Śākaṭāyana saw in this
> etymology.  Nirukta [1.14] seems to suggest that there was no meaning
> connection between these elements thus derived, and it seems to fault
> Śākaṭāyana [atho etat padebhyaḥ padetarārdhān saṃcaskāra iti / yaḥ ananvite
> saṃcaskāra, sa tena garhyaḥ] for proposing an etymology with constituents
> that do not meaningfully relate to each other.  Śākaṭāyana probably
> believed that all constituent elements proposed in an etymology need to be
> derived from a verb-root.
>
> Madhav Deshpande
> Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
>
> On Mon, Oct 3, 2016 at 11:15 PM, Nityanand Misra <nmisra at gmail.com> wrote:
>
>> A member asked offline why there is no ‘jaśtva’ (‘t’ to ‘d’ change) by
>> ‘jhalāṃ jaśo’nte’ (A. 8.2.39) in sat + ya = satya, unlike in cases like
>> sat + yukti = sadyukti
>> sat + yoga = sadyoga
>>
>> I am copying the answer here too. The reason is that due to ‘yaci bham’
>> (A 1.4.18), ‘sat’ in ‘sat + ya’ is not a ‘pada’ but a ‘bha’. This is why
>> ‘jhalāṃ jaśo’nte’ is not applicable. ‘yaci bham’ does not apply in
>> ‘sadyukti’, ‘sadyoga’, etc.
>>
>>
>> On 3 October 2016 at 22:20, Howard Resnick <hr at ivs.edu> wrote:
>>
>>> Thank you.
>>> Howard
>>>
>>> On Oct 2, 2016, at 11:49 AM, Nityanand Misra <nmisra at gmail.com> wrote:
>>>
>>> The derivations I am aware of are
>>>
>>> sati sādhu satyam
>>> sat + yat (*tatra sādhuḥ*, A 4.4.98) = satya
>>>
>>> or
>>>
>>> sate/sadbhyo hitaṃ satyam
>>> sat + yat (*tasmai hitam*, A 5.1.5) = satya
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> On 2 October 2016 at 20:53, Howard Resnick <hr at ivs.edu> wrote:
>>>
>>>> Dear Scholars,
>>>>
>>>>         Does the derivation of satya, truth, from ‘sat’ follow any
>>>> particular set of rules for derivative nouns?
>>>>
>>>> Thanks,
>>>> Howard
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>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Nityānanda Miśra
>>> http://nmisra.googlepages.com
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>
>>
>> --
>> Nityānanda Miśra
>> http://nmisra.googlepages.com
>>
>>
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