[INDOLOGY] satya

Olivelle, J P jpo at austin.utexas.edu
Tue Oct 4 15:29:08 EDT 2016


This is quite interesting, Madhav. Even though Yāska may not attach a meaning to the two roots from which Śākaṭāyana derives the word “sat-ya”, I wonder whether there was a tradition of find a meaning in the term of “taking someone to sat”. I was reminded of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (1.3.28) statement: asato mā sad gamaya, the latter being a causative of √gam, which is a synonym of √i.

Patrick




On Oct 4, 2016, at 2:09 PM, Madhav Deshpande <mmdesh at umich.edu<mailto:mmdesh at umich.edu>> wrote:

Just for additional information, perhaps the oldest etymology for the word satya was offered by a grammarian named Śākaṭāyana.  This is referred to by Yāska in his Nirukta [1.13, 1.14], where we are told that Śākaṭāyana derived parts of a word from other words [padebhyaḥ padetarārdhān saṃcaskāra śākaṭāyanaḥ].  Śākaṭāyana derives the "ya" of satya from the causative of the root "i" [eteḥ kāritaṃ ca yakārādiṃ ca antakaraṇam], while he derives the "sat" of satya from the root "as" [asteḥ śuddhaṃ sakārādiṃ ca].  It is not entirely clear what meaning Śākaṭāyana saw in this etymology.  Nirukta [1.14] seems to suggest that there was no meaning connection between these elements thus derived, and it seems to fault Śākaṭāyana [atho etat padebhyaḥ padetarārdhān saṃcaskāra iti / yaḥ ananvite saṃcaskāra, sa tena garhyaḥ] for proposing an etymology with constituents that do not meaningfully relate to each other.  Śākaṭāyana probably believed that all constituent elements proposed in an etymology need to be derived from a verb-root.

Madhav Deshpande
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

On Mon, Oct 3, 2016 at 11:15 PM, Nityanand Misra <nmisra at gmail.com<mailto:nmisra at gmail.com>> wrote:
A member asked offline why there is no ‘jaśtva’ (‘t’ to ‘d’ change) by ‘jhalāṃ jaśo’nte’ (A. 8.2.39) in sat + ya = satya, unlike in cases like
sat + yukti = sadyukti
sat + yoga = sadyoga

I am copying the answer here too. The reason is that due to ‘yaci bham’ (A 1.4.18), ‘sat’ in ‘sat + ya’ is not a ‘pada’ but a ‘bha’. This is why ‘jhalāṃ jaśo’nte’ is not applicable. ‘yaci bham’ does not apply in ‘sadyukti’, ‘sadyoga’, etc.


On 3 October 2016 at 22:20, Howard Resnick <hr at ivs.edu<mailto:hr at ivs.edu>> wrote:
Thank you.
Howard

On Oct 2, 2016, at 11:49 AM, Nityanand Misra <nmisra at gmail.com<mailto:nmisra at gmail.com>> wrote:

The derivations I am aware of are

sati sādhu satyam
sat + yat (tatra sādhuḥ, A 4.4.98) = satya

or

sate/sadbhyo hitaṃ satyam
sat + yat (tasmai hitam, A 5.1.5) = satya



On 2 October 2016 at 20:53, Howard Resnick <hr at ivs.edu<mailto:hr at ivs.edu>> wrote:
Dear Scholars,

        Does the derivation of satya, truth, from ‘sat’ follow any particular set of rules for derivative nouns?

Thanks,
Howard
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