[INDOLOGY] Does anyone know of Sanskrit works that use 2nd-syllable rhyming?
Jan E.M. Houben
jemhouben at gmail.com
Tue Jul 28 07:04:56 EDT 2015
This is an interesting observation, no doubt relevant for the history of
the intertwined sanskritic and prakritic traditions (and yes, the
traditions of tamil kannada malayalam language metrics/poetics and
literature are also somehow intertwined, but how).
Do you have any examples as illustration for those who do not have the
mentioned publications on their lap (or in their laptop)?
*Jan E.M. HOUBEN*
Sources et histoire de la tradition sanskrite
*École Pratique des Hautes Études*
*Sciences historiques et philologiques *
54, rue Saint-Jacques
CS 20525 – 75005 Paris
johannes.houben at ephe.sorbonne.fr
On 28 July 2015 at 10:15, Tieken, H.J.H. <H.J.H.Tieken at hum.leidenuniv.nl>
> Dominic Goodall wrote:
> “Second-syllable rhyming, in which just the consonant of the second
> syllable of each verse-quarter is rhymed, is abundantly present in
> post-Sangam Tamil literature and ubiquitous (or, if not, at least pretty
> nearly so) in the devotional literature of the Āḻvārs and Nāyaṉmārs, while
> being extremely rare in Sanskrit verse composition.”
> For such instances of rhyming in Indo-Aryan literature rather than to
> Sanskrit verse composition we should to the Prākrit and Apabhraṃśa “song”
> literature. As I have argued elsewhere Tamil devotional literature borrowed
> from Prākrit and Apabhraṃśa models. See, apart from the relevant chapters
> in my *Kāvya in South India. Old Tamil Caṅkam Poetry* from 2001, “Bhoja's
> *Śr̥ṅgāraprakāśa* and the *kuravai* poems in *Kalittokai*”, in Kannan M.
> and Jennifer Clare, *Passages: relationships between Tamil and Sanskrit*,
> 145-162, and “Songs accompanied by so-called *bhaṇitās* in dramatic
> texts”, in Karin Steiner and Heidrun Brückner, *Indisches Theater: Text,
> Theorie, Praxis*, 63-75.
> As to Jayadeva‘s *Gītagovinda*, may I quote myself?:
> “Its composite nature marks the *Gitagovinda* as a literary experiment.
> In fact, this is evident in yet another respect, namely the use of
> Sanskrit. For, both genres combined in the *Gītagovinda*, namely the
> *lāsya* and *catuṣpadā*, were in Prākrit. The *Gītagovinda* is a
> “translation” into Sanskrit of an original Prākrit type of composition.
> Interestingly, as such the *Gītagovinda* does not stand on its own. A
> similar development is seen in the *Āryāsaptaśatī*, a Sanskrit
> translation of the Prākrit *Sattasaī*. It cannot be a coincidence that
> the author of the *Āryāsaptaśatī*, a certain Govardhana, was patronized
> by the same Bengali king Lakṣmaṇasena who was believed to have been the
> patron of Jayadeva (see Pischel 1893).”
> (“The Genre of Yayadeva's *Gītagovinda*” in *Cracow Indological Studies,
> *Vols 4/5, 586-608, esp. p. 605.)
> Herman Tieken
> Herman Tieken
> Stationsweg 58
> 2515 BP Den Haag
> The Netherlands
> 00 31 (0)70 2208127
> website: hermantieken.com
> *Van:* INDOLOGY [indology-bounces at list.indology.info] namens Andrew
> Ollett [andrew.ollett at gmail.com]
> *Verzonden:* dinsdag 28 juli 2015 7:14
> *Aan:* Dominic Goodall
> *CC:* Indology List
> *Onderwerp:* Re: [INDOLOGY] Does anyone know of Sanskrit works that use
> 2nd-syllable rhyming?
> Second-syllable rhyme is also a sine qua non in Kannada poetry, and
> Jayakīrti uses it in his definitions/examples (all in Sanskrit) of
> different verse-forms in the Chandonuśāsana (ca. 1000 CE)---not just in the
> seventh chapter, where J. exemplifies some Kannada meters, but also
> occasionally in the sixth, which treats of Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa meters.
> According to Yigal Bronner and David Shulman ("A Cloud Turned Goose" in
> IESHR 43 in 2006), it's also used in later Sanskrit works by Tamil authors
> (Śākalya Malla's *Udārarāghava* and Nīlakaṇṭha Dīkṣita's *Śivalīlārṇava*).
> On Tue, Jul 28, 2015 at 10:15 AM, Dominic Goodall <
> dominic.goodall at gmail.com> wrote:
>> A late reaction to an earlier thread.
>> Setting aside the question of dating, which is so often contentious, I
>> am always *amazed* when people tell me that they are not convinced that the
>> *Bhāgavatapurāṇa* is a Southern production. The work is full of
>> Southern touches, many of which have been pointed out by a variety of
>> scholars over the last century. Yes, ok, there are also Northern touches,
>> but why should that be surprising for a Southern work ? The South seems
>> always long to have been more conscious of the North than the North has
>> been of the South. It is full, for example, of rather long-standing
>> Northern sacred toponyms (Tenkasi = “Benares of the South”; Madurai =
>> Mathurā, etc.; and, of course Southern rivers are regularly equated with
>> the Gaṅgā and Yamunā), whereas there are no old instances of a “Northern”
>> Kāñcī or Śrīraṅgam or Chidambam, nor of the "Kāverī of the North”.
>> Or are there ?
>> Similarly, the high literary style of the Bhāgavata, involving, in some
>> parts, a high concentration of Vedic archaisms seems sometimes to be
>> mentioned as though it were a factor that might suggest high antiquity and
>> a provenance somewhere in the North. But at what time in any part of the
>> Sanskritic world would Vedic literature not have been prestigious and
>> accessible to Veda-knowers seeking to write in a consciously archaising
>> But what about an element of style that not nearly as many authors
>> would have been similarly motivated to copy ?
>> Second-syllable rhyming, in which just the consonant of the second
>> syllable of each verse-quarter is rhymed, is abundantly present in
>> post-Sangam Tamil literature and ubiquitous (or, if not, at least pretty
>> nearly so) in the devotional literature of the Āḻvārs and Nāyaṉmārs, while
>> being extremely rare in Sanskrit verse composition. An example will make
>> this clear:
>> BhP_10.31.001/1 ja*ya*ti te 'dhikaṃ janmanā vrajaḥ śra*ya*ta indirā
>> śaśvad atra hi
>> BhP_10.31.001/3 da*yi*ta dṛśyatāṃ dikṣu tāvakās tva*yi* dhṛtāsavas tvāṃ
>> BhP_10.31.002/1 śa*ra*dudāśaye sādhujātasatsa*ra*sijodaraśrīmuṣā dṛśā
>> BhP_10.31.002/3 su*ra*tanātha te 'śulkadāsikā va*ra*da nighnato neha kiṃ
>> BhP_10.31.003/1 vi*ṣa*jalāpyayād vyālarākṣasād var*ṣa*mārutād
>> BhP_10.31.003/3 vṛ*ṣa*mayātmajād viśvato bhayād ṛ*ṣa*bha te vayaṃ
>> rakṣitā muhuḥ
>> BhP_10.31.004/1 na *kha*lu gopīkānandano bhavān a*khi*ladehinām
>> BhP_10.31.004/3 vi*kha*nasārthito viśvaguptaye sa*kha* udeyivān sātvatāṃ
>> I had long thought that this argument, expressed in 1996, would be a
>> clincher, at least for the devotional verses in which second-syllable
>> rhyming occurs, for proving Southernness, since I don’t know of any other
>> Sanskrit works that use this feature.
>> But Sanskrit literature is vast, hence this appeal:
>> Does anyone know of any other Sanskrit works that use such 2nd-syllable
>> Dominic Goodall
>> École française d'Extrême-Orient,
>> 19, rue Dumas,
>> Pondicherry 605001
>> Tel. +91 413 2334539
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